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The Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon about 2250 B. C. Robert Francis Harper , Hammurabi, King of Babylon The Letters and Inscriptions of Hammurabi. Hammurabi, King of Babylon, L. W. King Die Gesetze Hammurabis. Hammurabi, King of Babylon, D. H. Müller Die Gesetze Hammurabis. Hammurabi, King of Babylon, Hugo Winckler


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The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology). It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code. A partial copy exists on a 2.25 meter (7.5 ft) stone stele.


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This high basalt stele erected by the king of Babylon in the 18th century BC is a work of art, history and literature, and the most complete legal compendium of Antiquity, dating back to earlier than the Biblical laws.
Carried there by a prince from the neighboring country of Elam in Code of hammurabi king of babylon in the 12th century BC, the monument was exhibited on the Susa acropolis among other prestigious Mesopotamian masterpieces.
A legal tradition This basalt stele was erected https://spin-casinos-deposit.website/888/888-slot-free-games.html King Hammurabi of Babylon 1792—1750 BC probably at Sippar, city of the sun god Shamash, god of justice.
Other monuments code of hammurabi king of babylon this type belonging to a similar tradition were placed in the towns of his kingdom.
Two Sumerian legal documents drawn up by Ur-Namma, king of Ur c.
The Hammurabi Code—the most important legal compendium of the ancient Near East, drafted earlier than the Biblical laws—found its sources in these essays.
The text, which occupies most of the stele, constitutes the raison code of hammurabi king of babylon of the monument.
The principal scene depicted shows the king receiving his investiture from Shamash.
Remarkable for its code of hammurabi king of babylon content, this work is also an exceptional source of information about the society, religion, economy, and history of this period.
The content of the Code The text is written in cuneiform script and the Akkadian language.
It is divided into three parts: - a historical prologue relating the investiture of King Hammurabi in his role as "protector of the weak and oppressed," and the formation card bonus 888 blackjack his empire and achievements; - a lyrical epilogue summing up his legal work and preparing its perpetuation in the future; - these two literary passages frame a text describing almost three hundred laws and legal decisions governing daily life in the kingdom of Babylon.
The legal part of the code of hammurabi king of babylon uses everyday language and is here simplified, for the king wanted it to be understood by all.
However, the legal decisions are all constructed in the same manner: a phrase in the conditional sets out a problem of law or social order; it is followed by a response check this out the future tense, in the form of the sanction for the guilty party or the settlement of a situation: "Should an individual do such and such a thing, such and such a thing will happen code of hammurabi king of babylon him or her.
The principal subjects are family law, slavery, and professional, commercial, agricultural and administrative law.
Economic measures set prices and salaries.
The longest chapter concerns the family, which formed the basis of Babylonian society.
It deals with engagement, marriage and divorce, adultery and incest, children, adoption and inheritance, and the duties of children's nurses.
Every aspect of each case is addressed, enabling the greatest number of observations to be made.
The significance of the monument The Law Code of Hammurabi is valuable first and foremost as a model, being a treatise on the exercise of judiciary power in the context of Mesopotamian science, in which the particular never governs the general.
The observation of several similar cases does not establish a general and universal principle, or law.
It is not a code of laws in the sense that we understand it today, but rather a compendium of legal precedents.
Contradictions and illogicalities two similar cases causing different results can be found in the Code, because it deals with particular code of hammurabi king of babylon, from which the most personal elements the names of the protagonists, for example have been removed.
Because justice was a royal prerogative in Mesopotamia, Hammurabi here sets out a selection of the wisest legal decisions that he had to take or ratify.
This stele was, however, more than an educational tool.
It was a code of the rules and prescriptions established by a sovereign authority, and therefore a code of laws.
Not only does it contain a list of judicial rulings, but also a catalogue of the towns and territories annexed to the kingdom please click for source Babylon.
The stele of the Babylonian king Hammurabi constitutes a summary of one code of hammurabi king of babylon the most prestigious reigns of ancient Mesopotamia.
Executed in the last years of the sovereign's life, it was a political testament aimed at future princes, for whom it offered a model of wisdom and equity.
The Code also served as a literary model for the schools of scribes, who were to copy it for over one thousand years.
Bibliography André-Salvini Béatrice, Le Code de Hammurabi, Paris, Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, coll.
Finet André, Le Code de Hammurabi, Éditions du Cerf, coll.
Morgan Jacques de, Jéquier Gustave, "Premier royaume susien", in Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse, vol.
VII, "Recherches archéologiques", 2e série, Paris, 1905, pp.
Roth Martha, Law collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, Scholars Press, Atlanta, 1995.
Scheil Vincent, "Code des lois de Hammurabi Droit Privéroi de Babylone, vers l'an 2000 av.
IV, "Textes élamites et sémitiques", 2e série, Paris, 1902, pp.
Szlechter Émile, Codex Hammurabi, Rome, 1977 transcription, traduction.
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Hammurabi of the city state of Babylon conquered much of northern and western Mesopotamia and by 1776 B.C.E., he is the most far-reaching leader of Mesopotamian history, describing himself as “the king who made the four quarters of the earth obedient.”


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Around 1755 B.C.E., after years of tiring warfare that ultimately united Babylonia, King Hammurabi issued a code of law.Written in the Babylonian language and chiseled in exquisite cuneiform script on a tall pillar of black basalt, the law code is both a bit of royal public relations and a detailed list of legal statements.


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Hammurabi (also known as Khammurabi and Ammurapi, reigned 1792-1750 BCE) was the sixth king of the Amorite First Dynasty of Babylon, assumed the throne from his father, Sin-Muballit, and expanded the kingdom to conquer all of ancient Mesopotamia. The kingdom of Babylon comprised only the.


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The Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon about 2250 B. C. Robert Francis Harper , Hammurabi, King of Babylon The Letters and Inscriptions of Hammurabi. Hammurabi, King of Babylon, L. W. King Die Gesetze Hammurabis. Hammurabi, King of Babylon, D. H. Müller Die Gesetze Hammurabis. Hammurabi, King of Babylon, Hugo Winckler


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Online Library of Liberty A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets.
A project of Liberty Fund, Inc.
Autographed Text Transliteration Translation Glossary Index of Subjects Lists of Proper Names Signs Numerals Corrections and Erasures with Map Fronticepiece and Photograph of Text, by Robert Francis Harper Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1904.
Every effort has been taken to translate the unique features of the printed book into the HTML medium.
The 282 case laws include economic provisions prices, tariffs, trade, and commercial regulationsfamily law marriage and divorceas well as provisions dealing with criminal law assault, theft and civil law slavery, debt.
Copyright information: The text is in the public domain.
Fair use statement: This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc.
Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes.
It may not be used in any way for profit.
In January, 1903, I planned to give a transliteration and a translation of the Code of Ḫammurabi in the July or October number of The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures.
It soon became evident that it would be necessary to make a careful study of the Text of the Code as published in photographic reproduction by Pater Scheil in his excellent commentary on the Code.
This study led to the autographing of the Text so as to make it available to students.
Later, in consultation with my brother, President William Rainey Harper, it was decided to make the plan more complete and to publish the results of our studies in two volumes, the first to contain the Autographed Text, Transliteration, Translation, Index of Subjects, Lists of Proper Names, Signs, Numerals, Mistakes and Erasures; the second to discuss the Code in its connection with the Mosaic Code.
A Transliteration and Translation were made before August first, 1903.
The Autographed Text was published in the October number 1903 of AJSL.
simply 888 poker paypal deposit charming Lists of Signs, Numerals, Mistakes and Erasures were made ready in October and the first week of November and were printed in the January number 1904 of AJSL.
Since August few changes have been made in the Translation.
The Transliteration, however, has undergone many minor changes.
I have accepted one reading from Müller in § 47, and I have added from Kohler-Peiser in a footnote their transliteration of the difficult passage in the Epilogue, 41, 103—104.
I have made good use of the excellent translations of Winckler, and of my friend, Rev.
Johns, of Queens College, Cambridge.
The latter also sent me some of his unpublished notes, which have been helpful in places.
Jeremias and Oettli have been of service to me.
I am under obligations to Professor Christopher Johnston, of Johns Hopkins University, for several suggestions as to the translation, a typewritten copy of which he kindly read; to my colleague in the University, Professor Ira Maurice Price, for reading proofs of the first forty plates of the Autographed Text; and to my pupil, Mr.
McSwain, who has rendered me valuable assistance in many ways.
I am specially indebted to my pupil, Mr.
Godbey, Fellow in Semitics in the University of Chicago, for autographing under my direction the Text and Lists and for the preparation of the Index of Subjects; and to Dr.
William Muss-Arnolt for reading a proof of the Transliteration, Translation, and Glossary.
It is hoped that Part II will appear in September or October, 1904.
To my friend and former colleague in the University of Chicago, Professor Franklin P.
The Monument on which the Code code of hammurabi king of babylon Ḫammurabi is engraved was found in December, 1901, and January, 1902, on the acropolis of Susa by an Expedition sent out by the French Government under the Director General, M.
It is a block of black diorite, nearly eight feet high, broken into three pieces which were easily re-joined.
Another fragment was found which does not belong to this Monument, but which contains a text corresponding to Column 41, 72—80, and this leads to the conclusion that another copy of this famous Code existed in Susa.
On the Obverse we have a bas-relief see Frontispiece exhibiting King Ḫammurabi receiving the laws from the Sun God, to which the story of Moses receiving the Ten Words from Yahweh corresponds.
Under this relief are engraved sixteen columns of text, four and one-half of which form the Prologue.
There were originally five more columns on the Obverse, but these have been cut off by the Elamitic conqueror.
On the Reverse, there are twenty-eight columns, the last five of which form the Epilogue.
There are many reasons for believing that this Code of Laws was published in many places.
We may accept the opinion of Scheil and Winckler that the copy found at Susa may have been taken as plunder by Šutruk-Naḫunte about 1100 bc and brought to his Elamitic capital.
We have fragments of later copies on tablets and these please click for source enabled me to restore the text in one or two places.
These later fragments, with transliteration and translation, will form one of the Appendices to Part II.
Ḫammurabi, identified by most Assyriologists with the Amraphel of Genesis 14, 1, was the sixth king of the First Dynasty of Babylon and reigned for fifty-five years, about 2250 bc We have a good account of his life and deeds in the Letters which he wrote to Sin-idinnam and in The Chronicle of the Kings of Babylon, both of which have been edited with great care by Mr.
He codified the existing laws that the strong might not oppress the weak, that they should give justice to the orphan and widow, and for the righting of wrong.
He rebuilt cities and canals, he restored temples and endowed them with means for sacrifices, he re-established cults, he reunited his people.
Society in the time of Ḫammurabi consisted legally of the following classes: 1 the awîlum, 2 the muškênum, and 3 the wardum-amtum, and their rights and privileges were clearly defined.
The first, awîlum, included the house-holders, property owners, the wealthy and upper classes.
Awîlum has been translated by man or person.
In a few places, it is almost necessary to translate gentleman as over against freeman.
The second, muškênum, has been variously translated, pauper poor man, serf, retainer, etc.
The etymology of the word goes to show that the muškênum was poor.
He could, however, hold property and slaves.
He held a position half-way between the awîlum, upper class man, and the wardum-amtum, slave.
I have used the term freeman.
The third class, wardum-amtum, consisted of male and female slaves.
There was also a class of public servants which received subsidies from the government.
It is difficult to determine the exact duties of these officers.
I have translated officer recruiting officerconstable military messenger, police officerand taxgatherer one in the public service.
Compare the Index of Code of hammurabi king of babylon />The position of women, which was a high one legally, of concubines, devotees, etc.
The Text as presented in Plates I-LXXXII has been reconstructed and edited from the photographs published by Scheil in Tome IV, Textes Élamites-Sémitiques of the Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse Paris, Leroux, 1902.
It was printed in the October 1903 number of The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures.
To edit a text from a photograph is a very different task from editing an original copy.
No one can appreciate this more keenly than I.
In fact, I am of opinion that an edition of an Assyrian or Babylonian text which is to be final must go back to the originals.
Hence there may be room for difference of opinion in regard to many small wedges which are not essential to any form of the Signs in which they are found.
Some restorations have been attempted, and in these I have for the most part followed Scheil.
I have, however, been obliged to differ from him in some places.
Only such restorations were made as seemed to me to be fairly certain.
Others, which were less certain, have been put in the Transliteration.
In the Transliteration I have used the mimation with the ideograms following the forms which have a syllabic spelling.
In many places I have distinguished ḳ from k where no such distinction is made in the Text.
Again, in many places, I have preferred to retain the k, where ḳ might have been used with accuracy.
My readings in all these places are indicated in the Glossary.
The Translation which is placed opposite the Transliteration is rather literal.
In most cases, the Babylonian idiom has been retained in the English, e.
In other cases, I have not hesitated to change the form of expression for the sake of clearness.
An effort was made to avoid technical and legal language.
The Index to Subjects was made very complete to enable the reader to consult the Code with the greatest ease.
In fact, it may be used as a commentary to the Code.
The Glossary has been code of hammurabi king of babylon alphabetically.
Under A, are placed all words beginning with a, e, i, o, u, and w.
The values of No.
Jensen, KB, III, pp.
The values maš and bar are usually distinguished in the Code, cf.
MAŠ is to be preferred to E.
For the reading E.
MIŠ instead of E.
Note the two forms of Ê listed in No.
The sign under No.
List of Scribal Errors, 36, 89.
ZIR may be read zîru and ŠÀ.
TUR, as is well known, has the value labuttû; NU.
SAR has been read amêlu urḳu Delitzschzikaru-kirû Langdonetc.
TUK has the value ekûtu.
These values will be noticed in the Glossary.
It occurs twice and has the value šêru, flesh, 37, 32 and šîru, oracie, 43, 27.
In List II, 180 ḲA seems too large a number for the last sign.
This is the usual reading, but 90 ḲA would suit the context better in the law in which it occurs.
Compare §§ 271 and 272: If a man hire oxen, a wagon, and a driver, he shall pay 180 ḲA of grain per day; If a man hire a wagon only, he shall pay 40 ḲA of grain per day.
In § 268, we have: If a man hire an ox to thresh, 20 ḲA of grain is its hire.
Lists III and IV are of necessity incomplete.
One could easily be tempted to add other examples to those listed.
In 32, 80, ba is an unfinished zu.
In List IV only the most important erasures have been given.
The first column shows what was written originally, the second the sign as corrected, and the third the sign intended.
LIL be-el ša-me-e 5 u ir-ṣi-tim ša-i-im ši-ma-at mâtim a-na iluMarduk mâr+ri-eš-ti-im 10 ša iluEN.
KI ilubêlu-ut kiššat ni-ši g i-ši-mu-šum in I-gi-gi 15 u-šar-be-u-šu KA.
GIG wa-ṣi-e-im-ma ma-tim nu-wu-ri-im 45 ilum u iluEN-LIL a-na ši-ir ni-ši tu-ub-bi-im šu-mi ib-bu-u 50 Ḫa-am-mu-ra-bi ri-i-a-um ni-bi-it iluEN.
LIL ba-na-ku mu-gam-me-ir 55 nu-uḫ-ši-im u tu-uḫ-di-im mu-ša-ak-li-il mi-im-ma šum-šu ana EN.
KUR šarrum li-i-a-um mu-te-ir aluNUN.
KI 65 a-na aš-ri-šu mu-ub-bi-ib COLUMN II.
AB ti-i-ib ki-ib-ra-at ir-bi-tim 5 mu-šar-be zi-ik-ru KA.
ZU 15 ib-ni-u-šu mu-na-aḫ-ḫi-iš aluŠIŠ.
KI wa-aš-ru-um mu-uš-te-mi-ḳum 20 ba-bil ḫegallim a-na Ê.
GAL šar ta-ši-im-tim še-mu iluŠamaš bdannim mu-ki-in 25 išid UD.
KI mu-ša-al-bi-iš wa-ar-ki-im gi-gu-ne-e b iluA.
A mu-ṣi-ir 30 bît Ebabbarra ša ki šu-ba-at bša-ma-i ḳarradum ga-mi-il UD.
KI mu-ud-di-iš Ebabbarra 35 a-na iluŠamaš ri-ṣi-šu be-lum mu-ba-li-iṭ UNU.
KI ša-ki-in me-e 40 nu-uḫ-ši-im a-na ni-ši-šu mu-ul-li ri-eš Eanna mu-gam-me-ir 45 ḫi-iz-bi-im a-na iluAnu u iluNanâ ṣalûl ma-tim mu-pa-aḫ-ḫi-ir 50 ni-ši bsa-ap-ḫa-tim ša NI.
KI mu-da-aḫ-ḫi-id nu-uḫ-ši-im bît Ê.
MAḪ 55 ušumgallum šar+alim ta-li-im iluZA.
MA L mu-šar-ši-id šu-ba-at alu bNER.
KI 60 mu-uš-ta-aš-ḫi-ir me-li-im-mi Ê.
SAG mu-uš-te-iṣ-bi pa-ar-zi bra-bu-u-tim 65 ša iluNanâ pa-ki-id bi-tim ḪAR.
KI mu-ra-ab-bi-iš 5 mi-im-ma šum-šu a-na ŠID.
DA i-lu šar+alim mu-di igi-gal-im mu-ša-ad-di-il me-ri-eš-tim 20 ša DIL.
KI mu-ga-ar-ri-in bkarê a-na iluUraš?
MA 30 mu-ki-in u-zu-ra-tim ša KIŠ.
KI mu-di-eš-ši ma-ka-li bel-lu-tim 35 a-na iluNIN.
KI mu-ki-il ni-in-da-bi-e 45 ra-bu-tim a-na Ê.
L mu-tam-me-iḫ a-a-bi mi-gi-ir te-li-tim 50 mu-ša-ak-li-il te-ri-tim ša ṢA.
KI mu-ḫa-ad-di li-ib-bi GIŠ.
DAR 55 ru-bu-um el-lum ša ni-iš ga-ti-šu iluAdad i-du-u mu-ne-iḫ li-ib-bi iluAdad 60 ku-ra-di-im i-na aluIM.
KI mu-uš-ta-ak- bki-in zi-ma-tim i-na E.
GAL 65 šarrum na-di-in na-bi-iš-tim a-na UD.
KI a-še-ir bît E.
MAḪ 70 e-te-el šar+alim ga-ba-al la ma-ḫa-ri-im COLUMN IV.
KI mu-še-eš-ki 5 nu-uḫ-ši-im a-na ŠID.
LAM im-ḳum mu-tab-bi-lum šu ik-šu-du 10 na-ga-ab ur-ši-im mu-uš-pa-az-zi-ir ni-ši MAL.
NA mu-šar-bu-u 20 šar-ru-ti-šu dârî-iš i-ši-mu zi-bi el-lu-tim a-ša-ri-id bšar+alim mu-ka-an-ni-iš 25 da-ad-mi nâruUD.
NA ṣal-tum iluDa-gan ba-ni-šu šu ig-mi-lu 30 ni-ši ME.
ZU ša-ti-ib ni-ši-šu in pu-uš-ki-im 40 mu-ki-in-nu iš-ki-ši-im kir-bu-um KA.
DAR ṭa-ba mu-ki-in-ni GIŠ.
MAŠ 50 kir-bu-um A.
KI ri-bi-tim mu-še-bi ki-na-tim mu-šu-še-ir bam-mi 55 mu-te-ir lamassi-šu da-mi-iḳ-tim a-na aluA.
KI mu-še-ib-bi bna-bi-ḫi 60 šarrum ša i-na bNi-nu-a.
When the lofty Anu, king of the Anunnaki, and Bel, lord of heaven and earth, he who determines the destiny of the land, committed the rule of all mankind to Marduk, the chief son of Ea; when they made him great among the Igigi; when they pronounced the lofty name of Babylon; when they made it famous among the quarters of the world and in its midst established an everlasting kingdom whose foundations were firm as heaven and earth—at that time, Anu and Bel called me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, the worshiper of the gods, to cause justice to prevail in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil, to prevent the strong from oppressing the weak, to go forth like the Sun over the Black Head Race, to enlighten the land and to further the welfare of the people.
Hammurabi, the governor named by Bel, am I, who brought about plenty and abundance; who made everything for Nippur and Durilu complete; the exalted supporter of E-kur; the wise king, who restored Eridu to its place; who purified Col.
IV who presented life to the city of Mashkan-shabri; who poured out abundance over Shid-lam; the wise governor, who captured the bandit caves?
Vthe ancient seed of royalty, the powerful king, the Sun of Babylon, who caused light to go forth over the lands of Sumer and Akkad; the king, who caused the four quarters of the world to render obedience; the favorite of Nana, am I.
When Marduk sent me to rule the people and to bring help to the country, I established law and justice in the land and promoted the welfare of the people.
GA ilim 33 u êkal-lim 34 iš-ri-iḳ 35 a-wi-lum šu-u 36 id-da-ak 37 u ša šu-ur-ga-am 38 i-na ga-ti-šu 39 here 40 id-da-ak § 7.
KAK 66 a-du X-šu i-ri-a-ab 67 šum-ma šar-ra- bga-nu-um 68 ša na-da-nim bla i-šu 69 id-da-ak § 9.
KAK 34 lu amat MAŠ.
KAK 35 abullam uš-te-zi 36 id-da-ak § 16.
KAK 42 i-na bi-ti-šu 43 ir-ta-ki-ma 44 a-na ši-si-it 45 na-gi-ri-im 46 la uš-te-zi-a-am 47 be-el bîtim šu-u 48 id-da-ak § 17.
PA 40 u lu-u NU.
TUR 41 game bonus collect facebook auto ni-is-ḫa-tim 42 ir-ta-ši 43 u lu a-na ḫarrân 44 šar-ri-im 45 amêluagram pu-ḫa-am 46 im-hu-ur-ma 47 ir-te-di 48 lu PA.
TUR šu-u 50 id-da-ak § 34.
TUR šu-u 64 id-da-ak § 35.
ZUN 67 u ṣênê 68 ša šar-ru-um 69 a-na rid ṣâbê 70 id-di-nu XII, 1 i-na ga-ti rid ṣâbê 2 iš-ta-am 3 i-na kaspi-šu 4 i-te-el-li § 36.
GUR 34 i-ma-ad-da-ad § 45.
XV, 1 šum-ma ir-ri-šum 2 i-na eḳlim še-am 3 u lu šamaššammam 4 la uš-tab-ši 5 ri-ik-sa-ti-šu 6 u-ul in-ni § 53.
GUR 45 i-ma-ad-da-ad § 57.
E 62 XX ŠE.
GUR 63 a-na be-el eḳlim 64 i-na-ad-di-in § 58.
E XVI, 1 LX ŠE.
GUR 2 a-na be-el eḳlim 3 i-ma-ad-da-ad § 59.
GUR 55 ša ša-at-tim 56 iš-ti-a-at 57 i-ma-ad-da-ad § 64.
XVII, 1 ṣi-ba-a-at kaspim 2 ma-la il-ḳu-u 3 i-sa-ad-dar-ma 4 ûmi-šu 5 i-ma-an-nu- bu-ma 6 tamkari-šu 7 i-ip-pa-al § 101.
LAM šikarim 21 a-na KI.
NA 27 ṣa-ar-ru-tum 28 i-na bîti-ša 29 it-tar-ka-zu-ma 30 ṣa-ar-ru-tim bšu-nu-ti 31 la iṣ-ṣa-ab- btam-ma 32 a-na êkallim 33 la ir-di-a-am 34 ŠAL.
NA bši-i 35 id-da-ak § 110.
AN 37 ša i-na MAL.
A 38 la wa-aš-ba-at 39 bît GEŠ.
NA bip-te-te 40 u lu a-na šikarim 41 a-na bît GEŠ.
NA 42 i-te-ru-ub 43 a-wi-il-tam bšu-a-ti 44 i-ḳal-lu-u-ši § 111.
NA 46 LX ḲA šikarim U.
AN 27 u aš-ša-at a-wi-lim 28 u-ba-nam bu-ša-at-ri-iṣ-ma 29 la uk-ti-in 30 a-wi-lam šu-a-ti 31 ma-ḫar da-a-a-ni 32 i-na-ad-du-u-šu 33 u mu-ut-ta-zu 34 u-gal-la-bu § 128.
GA bît a-ba 64 a-na a-ḫi-šu-nu 65 ṣi-iḫ-ri-im 66 ša aš-ša-tam 67 la iḫ-zu 68 e-li-a-at 69 zi-it-ti-šu 70 kaspi tir-ḫa-tim 71 i-ša-ak-ka- bnu-šum-ma 72 aš-ša-tam 73 u-ša-aḫ- bḫa-zu-šu § 167.
GA bît a-ba 7 mi-it-ḫa-ri-iš 8 i-zu-uz-zu § 168.
GA bbît a-ba 54 mârê ḫi-ir-tim 55 u mârê amtim 56 mi-it-ḫa-ri-iš 57 i-zu-uz-zu 58 TUR.
UŠ TUR ḫi-ir-tim 59 i-na zi-it-tim 60 i-na-za-ak-ma 61 i-li-ḳi § 171.
GA 12 bît mu-ti-ša 13 ṣi-it-tam 14 ki-ma ablim biš-te-en 15 i-li-ḳi 16 šum-ma mârê-ša 17 aš-šum i-na bîtim bšu-zi-im 18 u-za-aḫ-ḫa-mu-ši 19 da-a-a-nu 20 wa-ar-ka-za 21 i-par-ra-su-ma 22 mârê ar-nam 23 https://spin-casinos-deposit.website/888/888-casino-deposit.html 24 zinništum ši-i 25 i-na bît mu-ti-ša 26 u-ul uz-zi § 172A.
KAK 60 mârat a-wi-lim 61 i-ḫu-uz-ma 62 mârê 63 it-ta-la-ad 64 be-el wardim 65 a-na mârê 66 mârat a-wi-lim 67 a-na wa-ar- bdu-tim 68 u-ul i-ra-ag-gu-um § 176.
KAK 79 i-ru-ub-ma 80 iš-tu in-ne-im-du 81 bîtam i-pu-šu 82 bi-ša-am ir-šu-u 83 wa-ar-ka-nu-um-ma 84 lu warad êkallim 85 u lu warad MAŠ.
KAK 86 a-na ši-im-tim 87 it-ta-la-ak 88 mârat a-wi-lim 89 še-ri-iḳ-ta-ša 90 i-li-ḳi 91 u mi-im-ma 92 ša mu-za u ši-i XXX.
SU 23 ša mârê-ša 24 ṣi-iḫ-ḫi-ru 25 a-na bîtim ša-ni-im 26 e-ri-bi-im 27 pa-ni-ša 28 iš-ta-ka-an 29 ba-lum da-a-a-ni 30 u-ul i-ir-ru-ub 31 i-nu-ma 32 a-na bîtim ša-ni-im 33 this web page 34 da-a-a-nu 35 wa-ar-ka-at 36 bît mu-ti-ša 37 pa-ni-im 38 i-par-ra-su-ma 39 bîtam ša mu-ti-ša 40 pa-ni-im 41 a-na mu-ti-ša 42 wa-ar-ki-im 43 u zinništim šu-a-ti 44 i-pa-ak-ki-du-ma 45 dup-pa-am 46 u-še-iz-zi-bu- bšu-nu-ti 47 bîtam i-na-ṣa-ru 48 u ṣi-iḫ-ḫi-ru-tim 49 u-ra-ab-bu-u 50 u-ni-a-tim 51 a-na kaspim 52 u-ul i-na-ad-di-nu 53 ša-a-a-ma-nu-um 54 ša u-nu-ut 55 mârê NU.
SU 56 i-ša-am-mu 57 i-na kaspi-šu 58 i-te-el-li 59 ŠA.
BA 85 i-na-ad-di-nu-šim-ma 86 li-ib-ba-ša 87 u-ṭa-ab-bu 88 šum-ma aḫ-ḫu-ša 89 ki-ma e-mu-uḳ 90 zi-it-ti-ša 91 ŠE.
BA 92 la it-ta-ad- bnu-ši-im-ma XXXI, 1 li-ib-ba-ša 2 la uṭ-ṭi-ib-bu 3 eḳil-ša u kirâ-ša 4 a-na ir-ri-ši-im 5 ša e-li-ša bṭa-bu 6 i-na-ad-di-in-ma 7 ir-ri-za 8 it-ta-na-aš-ši-ši 9 eḳlam kirâm 10 u mi-im-ma 11 ša a-bu-ša 12 id-di-nu-ši-im 13 a-di ba-al-ṭa-at bi-kal 14 a-na kaspim 15 u-ul i-na-ad-di-in 16 ša-ni-a-am 17 u-ul u-up-pa-al 18 ab-lu-za 19 ša aḫ-ḫi- bša-ma § 179.
PAR 63 a-na ilim iš-ši-ma 64 še-ri-iḳ-tam 65 la iš-ru-uḳ-ši-im 66 wa-ar-ka a-bu-um 67 a-na ši-im-tim 68 it-ta-al-ku 69 i-na ŠA.
GA bît a-ba 70 IGI.
GAL ablûti-ša 71 i-za-az-ma 72 a-di ba-al-ṭa-at 73 i-ik-ka-al 74 wa-ar-ka-za 75 ša aḫ-ḫi-ša-ma § 182.
KI 80 še-ri-iḳ-tam 81 la iš-ru-uḳ-ši-im 82 ku-nu-kam 83 la iš-tur-ši-im 84 wa-ar-ka ba-bu-um 85 a-na ši-im-tim 86 it-ta-al-ku 87 i-na ŠA.
GA bbît a-ba 88 IGI.
GAL ablûti-ša 89 it-ti aḫ-ḫi-ša 90 i-za-az-ma 91 il-kam 92 u-ul i-il-la-ak 93 aššat iluMarduk 94 wa-ar-ka-za 95 e-ma e-li-ša 96 ṭa-bu XXXII, 1 i-na-ad-di-in § 183.
GA bbît a-ba 14 u-ul i-za-az § 184.
GA 51 mu-za-az êkallim 52 u mâr zinništi zi-ik- bru-um 53 u-ul ib-ba-ag-gar § 188.
GAL ablûti-šu 90 i-na-ad-di-iš-šum-ma 91 it-ta-la-ak 92 i-na eḳlim kirêm 93 u bîtim 94 u-ul i-na-ad-di- 95 iš-šum § 192.
GA 11 u lu mâr zinništi zi- bik-ru-um 12 bît a-bi-šu 13 more info 14 a-ba-am 15 mu-ra-bi-šu 16 u um-ma-am 17 mu-ra-bi-zu 18 i-ṣi-ir-ma 19 a-na bît a-bi-šu 20 it-ta-la-ak 21 i-in-šu 22 i-na-za-ḫu § 194.
DU ba-wi-lim 51 iš-te-bi-ir 52 NER.
DU-šu 53 i-še-ib-bi-ru § 198.
KAK 55 uḫ-tab-bi-it 56 u lu NER.
KAK 57 iš-te-bi-ir 58 I ma-na kaspim 59 i-ša-ḳal § 199.
ŠI im-maḫ-ḫa-aṣ § 203.
KAK 89 li-e-it MAŠ.
KAK 90 im-ta-ḫa-aṣ 91 X šiḳil kaspim i-ša-ḳal § 205.
ZU bi-ip-pa-al § 207.
KAK 36 i-na ma-ḫa-zi-im 37 ša li-ib-bi-ša 38 uš-ta-ad-di-ši 39 V šiḳil kaspim 40 i-ša-ḳal § 213.
ZU 56 a-wi-lam bzi-im-ma-am kab-tam 57 i-na GIR.
NI siparrim 58 i-bu-uš-ma 59 a-wi-lam bub-ta-al-li-iṭ 60 u lu na-gab-ti ba-wi-lim 61 i-na GIR.
NI siparrim 62 ip-te-ma 63 i-in a-wi-lim 64 ub-ta-al-li-iṭ 65 X šiḳil kaspim 66 i-li-ḳi § 217.
ZU a-wi-lam 75 zi-im-ma-am kab-tam 76 i-na GIR.
NI siparrim 77 i-bu-uš-ma 78 a-wi-lam uš-ta-mi-it 79 u lu na-gab-ti a-wi-lim 80 i-na GIR.
NI siparrim 81 ip-te-ma i-in a-wi-lim 82 uḫ-tab-bi-it 83 rittê-šu i-na-ki-su § 219.
ZU zi-ma-am kab-tam 85 warad MAŠ.
KAK 86 i-na GIR.
NI siparrim 87 i-bu-uš-ma uš-ta-mi-it 88 wardam ki-ma wardim i-ri-ab § 220.
DU a-wi-lim XXXV, 1 še-bi-ir-tam 2 uš-ta-li-im 3 u lu še-ir ḫa-nam 4 mar-ṣa-am 5 ub-ta-al-li-iṭ 6 be-el ṣi-im-mi-im 7 a-na A.
ZU 8 V šiḳil kaspim 9 i-na-ad-di-in § 223.
ZU 16 II šiḳil money round feud family 17 i-na-ad-di-in § 224.
ZU alpim 19 u lu imêrim 20 lu alpam u lu imêram 21 ṣi-im-ma-am kab-tam 22 i-bu-uš-ma 23 ub-ta-al-li-iṭ 24 be-el alpim bu lu imêrim 25 IGI.
GAL kaspim 26 a-na A.
GAL šîmi-šu 34 a-na be-el alpim bu lu imêrim 35 i-na-ad-di-in § 226.
GA 83 uḫ-ta-al-li-iḳ 84 mi-im-ma 85 ša u-ḫal-li-ḳu 86 i-ri-ab 87 u aš-šum bîtam i-bu-šu 98 la u-dan-ni-nu-ma 89 im-ku-tu 90 i-na ŠA.
GA 91 ra-ma-ni-šu 92 bîtam bonus no deposit 888 88 casino i-ib-bi-eš § 233.
GA bra-ma-ni-šu 23 u-dan-na-an-ma 24 elippam dan-na-tam 25 a-na be-el elippim 26 i-na-ad-di-in § 236.
XXXVII, 1 šum-ma a-wi-lum 2 alpam imêram i-gur-ma 3 i-na ṣi-ri-im 4 UR.
GAL šîmi-šu 35 i-na-ad-di-in § 249.
ZIR u lu ŠÀ.
GAL 79 iš-ri-iḳ-ma 80 i-na ga-ti-šu 81 it-ta-aṣ-ba-at 82 rittê-šu i-na-ak-ki-su § 254.
ZUN 89 a-wi-lim a-na ig-ri-im 90 it-ta-di-in 91 u lu ŠE.
ZIR iš-ri-iḳ-ma 92 i-na eḳlim la uš-tab-ši 93 a-wi-lam šu-a-ti 94 u-ka-an-nu-šu-ma 95 i-na ebûrim X GAN.
E 96 LX ŠE.
GUR i-ma-ad-da-ad § 256.
ZUN 100 im-ta-na-aš-ša-ru-šu § 257.
ŠU i-gur 2 VIII ŠE.
GUR 3 i-na šattim I kam 4 i-na-ad-di-iš-šum § 258.
GUD i-gur 7 VI ŠE.
GUR 8 i-na šattim I kam 9 i-na-ad-di-iš-šum § 259.
APIN i-na ugarim 12 iš-ri-iḳ 13 V šiḳil kaspim 14 a-na be-el GIŠ.
KIN 17 u lu GIŠ.
UR 18 iš-ta-ri-iḳ 19 III šiḳil kaspim 20 i-na-ad-di-in § 261.
ZUN 23 u ṣênê 24 ri-im i-gur 25 VIII ŠE.
GUR 26 i-na šattim I kam 27 i-na-ad-di-iš-šum § 262.
ZUN 63 u ṣênê 64 a-na ri-im 65 in-na-ad-nu-šum 66 u-sa-ar- bri-ir-ma 67 ši-im-tam but-ta-ak-ki-ir 68 u a-na kaspim 69 it-ta-di-in 70 u-ka-an-nu-šu-ma 71 a-du X-šu bša iš-ri-ḳu 72 LID.
ZUN 73 u ṣênê 74 a-na be-li-šu-nu 75 i-ri-a-ab § 266.
ZUN u ṣênê 87 u-ša-lam-ma 88 a-na be-li-šu-nu 89 i-na-ad-di-in § 271.
ŠE kaspim 41 ID amêlubânîm 42.
GAL kaspim bID-ša 57 i-na-ad-di-in § 278.
If the river show that man to be innocent and he come forth unharmed, he who charged him with sorcery shall be put to death.
He who threw himself into the river shall take to himself the house of his accuser.
If the thief have nothing wherewith to pay he shall be put to death.
The witnesses in whose presence the purchase was made and the witnesses to identify the lost code of hammurabi king of babylon shall give their testimony in the presence of god.
The seller shall be put to death as a thief; the owner of the lost property shall recover his loss; the purchaser shall recover from the estate of the seller the money which he paid out.
In no case shall his field or his garden or his house be given for his ransom.
The purchaser shall conduct the business of the field, garden or house which he has purchased.
He would cultivate it, and his field has been cultivated and at the time of harvest he shall take grain according to his contracts.
The agent shall take a sealed receipt for the money which he gives to the merchant.
A, open a wine-shop or enter a wine-shop for a drink, they shall burn that woman.
If the husband of the woman would save his wife, or if the king would save his male servant he may.
On her departure nothing shall be given to her for her divorce.
The first woman shall dwell in the house of her husband as a maid servant.
He may not take a concubine.
That concubine shall not rank with his wife.
His wife, who is afflicted with disease, he shall not put away.
She shall remain in the house which he has built and he shall maintain her as long as she lives.
The mother after her death may will to her child whom she loves, but to a brother she may not.
Her dowry belongs to her children.
Her dowry belongs to the house of her father.
They shall receive the dowries of their respective mothers and they shall divide equally the goods of the house of the father.
If he commit a grave crime a second time, the father may cut off his son from sonship.
The child of the wife shall have the right of choice at the division.
The maid servant and her children shall be given their freedom.
The children of the wife may not lay claim to the children of the maid servant for service.
The wife shall receive her dowry and the gift which her husband gave and deeded to her on a tablet and she may dwell in the house of her husband and enjoy the property as long as she lives.
She cannot sell it, however, for after her death it belongs to her children.
The owner of the slave shall receive one-half and the daughter of the man shall receive one-half for her children.
When she enters another house, the judges shall inquire into the estate of her former husband and they shall intrust the estate of her former husband to the later husband and that woman, and they shall deliver to them a tablet to sign.
They shall administer the estate and rear the minors.
They may not sell the household goods.
He who purchases household goods belonging to the sons of a widow shall forfeit his money.
The goods shall revert to their owner.
If her brothers do not give her grain, oil, and wool according to the value of her share and they do not make her content, she may give her field and garden to any tenant she may please and her tenant shall maintain her.
She shall enjoy the field, garden code of hammurabi king of babylon anything else which her father gave her as long as she lives.
She may not sell it, nor transfer it.
Her heritage belongs to her brothers.
Her brothers may not lay claim against her.
After her death it belongs to her brothers.
After her deathit belongs to her brothers.
A priestess of Marduk, after her deathmay give to whomsoever she may please.
GA, who is a palace guard, or the son go here a devotee.
The father who reared him shall give to him of his goods one-third the portion of a son and he shall go.
He shall not give to him of field, garden or house.
§ 242, § 243.
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MA L u iluNanâ 25 u-ša-at-li-mu-uim i-na egigalim ša iluEN.
SU šu-te-šu-ri-im i-na KA.
GA 105 a-na im-ki-im COLUMN XLII.
KUR kab-ta-at 85 bêltum mu-dam-mi-ga-at i-gi-ir-ri-ia a-šar ši-ip-di-im u pu-ru-zi-im i-na ma-ḫar iluBêl 90 a-wa-zu li-li-mi-in šu-ul-pu-ut ma-ti-šu ḫa-la-aḳ ni-ši-šu ta-ba-ak na-piš-ti-šu ki-ma me-e 93 i-na pî iluBêl šar-ri-im li-ša-aš-ki-in iluEN.
KI rubûm ra-bi-um ša ši-ma-tu-šu 100 i-na 888 poker no deposit i-la-ka abkal ili mu-di mi-im-ma šum-šu mu-ša-ri-ku COLUMN XLIII.
MA L gar-ra-du-um ra-bi-um mar+ri-eš-tu-um ša E.
KUR 85 a-li-ku im-ni-ia a-šar tam-ḫa-ri-im kakka-šu li-iš-bi-ir û-ma-am a-na mu-ši-im li-te-ir-šum-ma 90 na-ki-ir-šu e-li-šu li-iš-zi-iz iluNanâ be-li-it taḫazim u ḳablê pa-ti-a-at 95 kakki-ia la-ma-zi da-mi-iḳ-tum ra-i-ma-at palî-ia i-na li-ib-bi-ša 100 ag-gi-im i-na uz-za-ti-ša ra-be-a-tim šar-ru-zu li-ru-ur dam-ga-ti-šu 105 a-na li-im-ne-tim li-te-ir COLUMN XLIV.
TU bêltum ṣi-ir-tum ša ma-ta-tim ummum ba-ni-ti mâram bli-te-ir-šu-ma 45 šu-ma-am a u-šar- bši-šu i-na kir-bi-it bni-ši-šu zêr a-wi-lu-tim a ib-ni 50 iluNIN.
NIM ga-bi-a-at dum-ki-ia i-na Ê.
KUR 55 mur-ṣa-am bkab-tam ašakkam li-im-nam zi-im-ma-am bmar-ṣa-am ša la i-pa-aš-še-ḫu a-su ki-ri-ib-šu 60 la i-lam-ma-du i-na zi-im-di la u-na- baḫ-ḫu-šu ki-ma ni-ši-iḳ mu-tim bla in-na-za-ḫu i-na bi-ni-a- bti-šu 65 li-ša-ṣi-a- baš-šum-ma a-di na-bi-iš- bta-šu i-bi-el-lu-u a-na id-lu-ti-šu li-id-dam-ma-am 70 ilâni rabûti ša ša-me-e u ir-ṣi-tim iluA.
The righteous laws, which Hammurabi, the wise king, established and by which he gave the land stable support and pure government.
Hammurabi, the perfect king, am I.
I was not careless, nor was I neglectful of the Black-Head people, whose rule Bel presented and Marduk delivered to me.
I provided them with a peaceful country.
I opened up difficult barriers and lent them support.
With the powerful weapon which Za-má-má and Nana entrusted to me, with the breadth of vision which Ea allotted me, with the might which Marduk gave me, I expelled the enemy to the North and South; I made an end of their raids; I brought health to the land; I made the populace to rest in security; I permitted no one to molest them.
The great gods proclaimed me and I am the guardian governor, whose scepter is righteous and whose beneficent protection is spread over my city.
The king, who is pre-eminent among city kings, am I.
My words are precious, my wisdom is unrivaled.
By the command of Shamash, the great judge of heaven and earth, may I make righteousness to shine forth on the land.
By the order of Marduk, my lord, may no one efface my statues, may my name be remembered with favor in Esagila forever.
Let any oppressed man, who has a cause, come before my image as king of righteousness!
Let him read the inscription on my monument!
Let him give heed to my weighty words!
And may my monument enlighten him as to his cause and may he understand his case!
May he set his heart at ease!
In the days that are yet to come, for all future time, may the king who is in the land observe the words of righteousness which I have written upon my monument!
May he not alter the judgments of the land which I have pronounced, or the decisions of the country which I have rendered!
If that code of hammurabi king of babylon have wisdom, if he wish to give his land good government, let him give attention to the words which I have written upon my monument!
And may this monument enlighten him as to procedure and administration, the judgments which I have pronounced, and the decisions which I have rendered for the land!
And let him rightly rule his Black-Head people; let him pronounce judgments for them and render for them decisions!
Let him root out the wicked and evildoer from his land!
Let him promote the welfare of his people!
Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, whom Shamash has endowed with justice, am I.
My words are weighty; my deeds are unrivaled.
If that man do not pay attention to my words which I have written check this out my monument; if he forget my curse and do not fear the curse of god; if he abolish the judgments which I have formulated, overrule my words, alter my statues, efface my name written thereon and write his own name; on account of these curses, commission another to do so—as for that man, be he king or lord, or priest-king or commoner, whoever he may be, may the great god, the father of the gods, who has ordained my reign, take from him the glory of his sovereignty, may he break his scepter, and curse his fate!
May he determine as his fate a reign of sighs, days few in number, years of famine, darkness without light, death staring him in the face!
The destruction of his city, the dispersion of his people, the wresting away of his dominion, the blotting out of his name and memory from the land, may Bel order with his potent command!
May Belit, the august mother, whose command is potent in E-kur, who looks with gracious favor upon my plans, in the place of judgment and decisions pervert his words in the presence of Bel!
May she put into the mouth of Bel, the king, the ruin of his land, the destruction of his people and the pouring out of his life like water!
May Ea, the great prince, whose decrees take precedence, the leader of the gods, who knows everything, who prolongs Col.
May he bring him to oblivion, and dam up his rivers at their sources!
May he not permit corn, which is the life of the people, to grow in his land!
May Shamash, the great judge of heaven and earth, who rules all living creatures, the lord inspiring confidence, overthrow his dominion; may he not grant him his rights!
May he make him to err in his path, may he destroy the mass foundation of his troops!
May he bring to his view an evil omen of the uprooting of the foundation of his sovereignty, and the ruin of his land.
May the blighting curse of Shamash come upon him quickly!
May he cut off his life above upon the earth!
Below, within the earth, may he deprive his spirit of water!
May he lay upon him heavy guilt and great sin, which will not depart from him!
May he bring to an end the days, months, and years of his reign with sighing and tears!
May he multiply the burdens of his sovereignty!
May he determine as his fate a life like unto death!
May Adad, the lord of abundance, the regent of heaven and earth, my helper, deprive him of the rain from heaven and the water-floods from the springs!
May he bring his land to destruction through want and hunger!
May he break loose furiously over his city and turn his land into a heap left by a whirlwind!
May Za-má-má, the great warrior, the chief son of E-kur, who goes at my right hand, shatter his weapons on the field of battle!
May he turn day into night for him, and place his enemy over him!
May Ishtar, goddess of battle and conflict, who makes ready my weapons, the gracious protecting deity, who loves my reign, curse his dominion with great fury in her wrathful heart, and turn good into evil for him!
May she shatter his weapons on the field of battle and conflict!
May she create confusion and revolt for him!
May she strike down his warriors, may their blood water the earth!
May she cast the bodies of his warriors upon the field in heaps!
May she not grant his warriors burial?
May she deliver him into the hands of his enemies, and may they carry him away bound into a hostile land!
May Nergal, the mighty among the gods, the warrior without an equal, who grants me victory, in his great power, burn his people like a raging fire of swamp-reed.
May Nin-tu, the exalted mistress of the lands, the mother who bore me, deny him a son!
May she not let him hold a name among his people, nor beget an heir!
May Nin-kar-ra-ak, the daughter of Anu, who commands favors for me in E-kur, cause to come upon his members until it overcomes his life, a grievous malady, an evil disease, a dangerous sore, which cannot be cured, which the physician cannot diagnose, which he cannot allay with bandages, and which, like the bite of death, cannot be removed!
May he lament the loss of his vigor!
May the great gods of heaven and earth, the Anunnaki in their assembly, curse with blighting curses the wall of the temple, the construction of this E-babbarra, his seed, his land, his army, his people, and his troops!
May Bel with his command which cannot be altered curse him with a powerful curse and may it come upon him speedily!
Anu1, 1, 45, 40, 64.
II, 2, u-te-ib-bi-ba-aš-šu, 5, 48.
I, 2, to govern: mut-tab-bi-lum, 4, 8.
III, 1, to bring, to take away, to transport: u-ša-bi-il, 26, 50; u-ša-bil, 26, 62; u-ša-bi-lu, 26, 36; u-ša-bil-šu, 18, 58; šu-bu-lu, 18, 60, 61, 67; šu-bi-lam, 42, 75.
III, 2, to carry away: uš-ta-bil, 15, 15, 36, 42.
II, 2, to file a claim for: u-te-ib-bi-ir, 21, 14.
IV, 2, it-ta-bi-it, 22, 59.
I, 2, i-te-gi, 17, 47.
IV, 1, mu-na-ag-gi-ir-šu, 10, 10.
II, 2, u-te-id-di, 39, 82.
III, 1, to make known: u-še-di-šum, 37, 56.
III, 1, to deliver: u-še-zi-ib, 6, 11; u-še-iz-zi-bu-šu-nu-ti, 30, 46.
III, 2, uš-te-zi-ib, 25, 34.
I, 2, i-ta-ḫa-az, 27, 83.
III, 1, u-ša-aḫ-ḫa-zu-šu, 27, 73; šu-ḫu-zi-im, 5, 18.
III, 2, uš-ta-ḫi-iz, 42, 38; uš-ta-ḫi-zu, 32, 58, 61.
III, 1, to cause to eat, to pasture: u-ša-ki-lu, 15, 59, 75; šu-ku-lim, 15, 48.
III, 2, uš-ta-ki-il, 15, 53, 74.
NI, 1, 31, 42, 25, 46, 101, 43, 44, 44, 25; ilâni, 41, 49.
II, 1, to raise on high: u-ul-lu-u, 40, 66; mu-ul-li, 2, 42.
III, 2, to refloat: uš-te-li-a-aš-ši, 36, 59.
I, 2, it-ta-la-ad, 888 slot free games bonus, 46, 24, 47, 27, 84, 29, 45, 53, 63.
I, 2, it-ta-la-ak, 8, 6, 10, 23, 64, 27, have super princess peach bonus think, 13, 80, 29, 87, 32, 91, 33, 20; it-ta-al-la-ak, 24, 5, 25, 9, 32, 86; it-ta-al-kam-ma, 39, 79; it-ta-al-ku, 11, 3, 27, 41, 60, 87, 28, 52, 68, 30, 78, 31, 37, 51, 68, 86, 32, 12, 24.
II, 1, to lay upon, to place upon: li-mu-zu, 43, 51.
IV, 1, to stand together, to be united, to join hands: in-ne-im-du, 29, 80, 30, 1, 13.
I, 2, i-ta-mar, 17, 10, 21.
I, 2, i-te-ni, 6, 13.
III, 2, li-iš-te-bi, 40, 88.
II, 1, to transfer: u-up-pa-al, 31, 17.
III, 1, u-še-ṣi, 12, 65, 13, 21; u-še-iz-zu-u-šu, 25, 71; u-še-zi-ši-na-ši-im, 40, 21; li-ša-ṣi-a-aš-šum-ma, 44, 65; šu-ṣa-a, 42, 1; šu-zi-im, 29, 17; mu-še-zi, 5, 6.
III, 2, uš-te-zi, 8, 35; uš-te-zi-a-am, 8, 46.
I, 2, i-te-ru-ub, 18, 42, 22, 22, 45, 63.
III, 1, to cause to enter, to bring in: u-še-ir-ri-ib-ši, 24, 39.
III, 1, mu-ša-ri-ku, 42, 103.
II, 1, mu-ri-iš, 3, 11.
IV, 1, i-ni-ri-iš, 13, 67.
III, 1, to rule with right: mu-šu-še-ir, 4, 54.
III, 2, uš-te-ši-ir, 41, 38, li-iš-te-ši-ir, 41, 87; šu-te-šu-ur, 5, 16; šu-te-šu-ri-im, 40, 62, 73; šu-te-šu-ra-am, 41, 77; mu-uš-te-še-ir, 43, 17.
IV, I, ib-ba-ab-lu-šum, 26, 45, 57, 72.
II, 1, to extinguish, to make an end of: u-bi-el-li, 40, 32; bu-ul-li-im, 9, 55.
II, 2, ub-ta-al-li-iṭ, 34, 59, 64, 35, 5, 23.
IV, 1, ib-ba-gar, 19, 73; ib-ba-ag-gar, 32, 38, 53, 59.
III, 1, u-ša-ab-ši, 43, 13; u-ša-ab-šu-u, 38, 85; šu-ub-ša-a-am, 42, 78.
III, 2, uš-tab-ši, 12, 66, 14, 32, 15, 4, 24, 18, 37, 92, 38, 83.
IV, 2, it-tab-ši, 14, 9, 20, 9, 25, 58, 38, 77.
II, 2, ug-da-al-li-ib, 35, 47.
II, 1, to complete, to bring about: mu-gam-me-ir, 1, 54, 2, 44.
I, 2, id-du-uk, 38, 78; id-du-uk-šu, 37, 4.
III, 1, uš-dik, 25, 64.
IV, 1, id-da-ak, 5, 32, 52, 67, 6, 36, 40, 56, 69, 7, 39, 58, 8, 3, 29, 36, 48, 9, 4, 27, 10, 9, 11, 50, 64, 18, 35, 21, 65, 35, 72.
I, 2, iz-za-kar, 8, 61.
IV, 1, li-iz-za-ki-ir, 41, 2.
I, 2, iḫ-ta-ba-al, 11, 54.
II, 1, u-ḫa-ap-pa-du, 33, 49.
II, 2, uḫ-tab-bi-it, 33, 47, 55, 61, 34, 82; uḫ-tab-da it34, code of hammurabi king of babylon, 37, 24.
IV, 1, iḫ-ḫa-ab-tu, 9, 42.
IV, 2, it-ta-aḫ-la-lu, 15, 70.
I, 2, iḫ-ta-li-iḳ, 9, 8, 20, 75.
II, 1, u-ḫal-li-ḳu, 15, 19, 20, 78, 35, 85, 36, 54; li-ḫal-li-iḳ, 43, 75; ḫu-ul-lu-ḳi-im, 1, 36.
II, 2, uḫ-ta-al-li-iḳ, 35, 83, 36, 34, 49, 38, 39.
II, 1, to benefit, cause to prosper, to content: u-ti-ib, 40, 34, 41, 33; u-ṭi-ib, 5, 24; li-ṭi-ib, 41, 94; u-ṭa-ab-bu, 30, 87; tu-ub-bi-im, 1, 48; mu-ti-ib, 2, 7.
II, 2, uṭ-ṭi-ib-bu, 31, 2.
II, 1, to establish, to call to account: u-ki-in, 40, 78; u-ki-in-nu, 40, 5; u-ki-in-nu-šum, 1, 26; u-ka-an, 17, 63, 18, 8, 19, 45; u-ka-an-šu, 39, 101; u-ka-an-nu-šu, 6, 17, 13, 2, 18, 69, 19, 11, 20, 62, 37, 94, 38, 70; u-ka-an-nu-ši, 18, 23, 22, 24, 23, 43, 33, 34; mu-ki-in, 2, 24, 3, 30; mu-ki-in-nu, 4, 40; mu-ki-in-ni, 4, 48.
II, 2, to establish, prove: uk-ti-in, 5, 61, 21, 29; uk-ti-in-šu, 5, 30, 36.
I, 2, ik-ta-aš-dam, 10, 25, 22, 50; ik-ta-ša-zu, 5, 43.
III, 1, u-ša-ak-ši-du, 2, 70; mu-ša-ak-ši-du, 44, 27.
III, 2, uš-ta-ak-ši-da-aš-šu, 11, 19.
I, 2, il-ta-ma-ad, 25, 69.
I, 2, il-te-ki, 9, 62, 11, 53, 61, 17, 51, 19, 5.
I, 2, im-ta-gar, 15, 50, 25, 4.
I, 2, im-ta-ḫa-ar, 13, 40; im-ta-ḫar, 13, 48, 18, 17, 19.
III, 2, to take precedence of: uš-ta-ma-aḫ-ḫa-ar, 24, 42; uš-ta-tam-ḫi-ir, 24, 51.
I, 2, im-ta-ḫa-aṣ, 33, 42, 78, 85, 90, 34, 1, 6.
IV, 1, im-maḫ-ḫa-aṣ, 33, 81.
III, 1, to make little, to belittle: u-ša-am-da, 23, 42, 24, 9; u-ša-am-da-ši, 23, 72.
II, 1, li-ma-al-li-šu, 44, 22.
I, 2, im-ta-nu-šu, 32, 71; im-ta-nu-šu-nu-ti, 28, 47.
III, 2, https://spin-casinos-deposit.website/888/888-casino-bonus-codes.html, 31, 34.
I, 2, im-ta-ku-ut, 39, 62.
III, 1, li-ša-am-ki-it, 44, 9.
II, 2, to go free: u-ta-aš-šar, 9, 13, 17, 31, 21, 67, 35, 55, 37, 43.
III, 2, uš-ta-mi-it, 34, 78, 87, 35, 32, 71, 74, 78, 37, 10, 48, 63.
I, 2, it-te-bi, 19, 21, 36, 83.
II, 1, mu-na-ak-ki-ib, 3, 9.
I, 2, it-ta-di, 13, 7, 33, 69, 72; li-it-ta-ad-di, 44, 16.
III, 2, uš-ta-ad-di-šu, 17, 28; uš-ta-ad-di-ši, 34, 38, 48; uš-ta-di-ši, 34, 27.
IV, 1, in-na-ad-di, 9, 65; in-na-ad-du-u, 33, 70; in-na-du-u, 16, 40.
I, 2, it-ta-di-in, 11, 56, 17, 18, 37, 90, 38, 69.
I, 3, it-ta-an-di-in, 19, 60, 70.
IV, 1, in-na-ad-di-in, 10, 48, 11, 38; in-na-ad-di-iš-šum, 10, 38, 68, 11, 10; in-na-ad-di-iš-ši-im, 23, 51; in-na-ad-nu, 23, 8; in-na-ad-nu-šum, 12, 61, 16, 35, 18, 72, 38, 38, 48, 65.
II, 1, mu-za-az, 32, 51.
III, 1, li-iš-zi-iz, 43, 91.
I, 2, it-ta-sa-ak, 37, 33.
III, 1, to cut off, efface, destroy: u-ša-az-zi-ik, 42, 6; u-ša-zi-ik, 41, 74; mu-ša-zi-ḳam, 40, 92.
I, 2, it-ta-ki-is, 37, 18, 31.
I, 2, it-ta-ki-ir, 17, 59, 20, 16; it-ta-ki-ir-šu, 18, 5, 20, 60; it-ta-ak-ru-šu, 20, 49.
II, 1, u-na-ak-ki-ir, 41, 72; u-na-ki-ir, 42, 10.
II, 2, ut-ta-ak-ki-ir, 2, 2, 38, 67, 42, 32; ut-ta-ak-ka-ru, 44, 88; ut-ta-ka-ru, 42, 56.
IV, 1, in-na-az-za-aḫ, 26, 32; in-na-za-ḫu, 44, 63.
IV, 1, to break out: in-na-bi-iḫ, 9, 53.
IV, 3, it-ta-na-aš-ši, 6, 5, 8, 24; it-ta-na-aš-ši-ši, 24, 81, 31, 8.
IV, 1, ip-pa-ad-dar, 11, 29.
IV, 1, ip-pa-ar-ra-aš-ma, 8, 65, 23, 65.
I, 2, to open up, to break, to develop: ip-te-te, 13, 23, 18, 39.
IV, 1, ib-bi-tu-u, 15, 18.
I, 2, iṣ-ṣa-ba-at, 7, 5, 22, 67; iṣ-ṣa-ab-tu, 11, 1; iṣ-ṣa-ab-tam-ma, 18, 31; iṣ-ṣa-ab-tu-šu, 21, 63, 25, 79; iṣ-ṣa-ba-az-zi, 24, 69.
III, 1, u-ša-az-bi-tu, 40, 8.
IV, 1, iṣ-ṣa-bi-it, 21, 73.
IV, 2, it-ta-aṣ-bat, 21, 46; it-ta-aṣ-ba-at, 9, 2, 25, 29, 22, 3, 26, 29, 37, 81.
ZUN, 11, 67, 15, 48, 52, 58, 65, 71, 73, 38, 23, 46, 54, 63, 73, 86.
I, 2, iḳ-ta-bi, 7, 12, 17, 13, 63, 21, 12, 23, 46, 53, 62, 26, 42, 55, 70, 28, 14, 47, 65, 33, 7, 39, 99.
II, 2, ur-ta-ab-bu-u, 23, 5; ur-ta-ab-bi-šu, 32, 36.
III, 1, to enlarge, to make great: u-šar-be-u-šu, 1, 15; mu-šar-bu-u, 4, 19, 42, 57; mu-šar-be, 2, 5.
I, 2, ir-te-di, 11, 47; ir-te-di-a-aš-šu, 8, 55; mu-ur-te-di-šu, 38, 101.
I, 2, ir-ta-ka-aš, 33, 33.
II, 1, contract with: u-ra-ak-ki-zu, 37, 76.
II, 2, ur-ta-ak-ki-iš, 25, 32.
IV, 1, collect: it-tar-ka-su, 18, 29.
I, 2, ir-ta-ši, 11, 42, 32, 82, 36, 18, 39, 69.
III, 1, grant, allow: u-šar-šu-šu, 22, 76; u-šar-ši, 44, 18; u-šar-ši-šu, 24, 30, 27, 10, 44, 46; u-šar-ši-ši-na-ti, 40, 39.
I, 3, to search for: iš-te-ne-i, 21, 5.
I, 2, iš-te-bi-ir, 33, 51, 57, 63, 37, 16.
I, 2, iš-ta-dar, 42, 35; i-sa-ad-dar, 17, 3, 39.
I, 2, iš-ta-ka-an, 22, 79, 23, 43, 24, 23, 34, 73, 28, 12, 29, 30, 30, 28, 32, 84; iš-ta-ak-ka-an, 19, 67, 28, 75, 39, 87; iš-ta-ka-an-šu, 34, 8.
III, 1, li-ša-aš-ki-in, 42, 97.
III, 2, mu-uš-ta-ak-ki-in, 3, 62.
IV, 1, iš-ša-ak-ka-an, 17, 54.
II, 1, u-ša-lam, to make good, restore: 20, 79, 38, 87; u-ša-lam-ši-im-ma, 23, 23, 26, 15; u-ša-lam-šim-ma, 25, 8; u-ša-la-mu-ši-im, 29, 10; mu-ša-al-li-mu-um, guardian, protecting, 40, 43.
III, 2, uš-ta-li-im, heal, 35, 2.
II, 1, mu-ši-im, 42, 54.
I, 2, iš-ta-am, 6, 52, 12, 2, 14, 39, 76.
IV, 1, iš-ša-mu, 7, 32.
III, 2, to cause to render obedience: mu-uš-te-iš-mi, 5, 10.
I, 2, ši-ta-an-nu, 43, 61.
IV, 1, na-aš-pu-uḫ, 42, 74.
IV, 1, to be stored: iš-ša-ap-ku, 20, 14.
III, 1, to pour out: mu-še-eš-ḳi, 4, 4.
I, 2, iš-ta-ri-iḳ, 8, 28, 38, 18.
I, 2, iš-ta-ra-aḳ, 11, 58.
II, 1, u-te-ib-bi, 36, 58; u-te-ib-bu-u, 36, 51, 78.
II, 2, ut-te-bi, 36, 33; ut-te-ib-bi, 36, 47, 71.
III, 1, to send forth, to expel: u-še-it-bu-u-šu, 6, 26.
I, 2, at-tab-ba-al-ši-na-ti, 40, 56.
I, 2, it-tu-ra-am, 10, 24, 65, 11, 8, 22, 48, 65; it-ta-ru, 19, 78; li-it-ta-ar-ru-šu, 43, 6.
click, 1, u-ta-ar, 13, 16, 31, 14, 12, 55, 17, 23, 41, 19, 13, 26, 59, 74, 27, 32, 39, 63; u-ta-a-ar, 16, 47, 52; u-ta-ar-ru-šu, 8, 67; u-ta-ar-ru-šum, 10, 27; u-ta-ar-ru-ši-im, 22, 82; li-te-ir, 43, 80, 106, 44, 1; li-te-ir-šu, 42, 49, 43, 4, 46, 71, 44, 44; li-te-ir-šum-ma, 43, 89; tu-ur-ru, 10, 17, 34, 11, 17; tu-ur-ri-im, 14, 57; mu-te-ir, 1, 64, 4, 55.
II, 2, ut-te-ir, 18, 1; ut-te-ir-šum, 27, 18, 26.
III, 1, to point: u-ša-at-ri-iṣ, 21, 28.
IV, 1, it-ta-ri-iṣ, 21, 82.
TIR, ašnan, 43, 11.
MAḪ, nêšu, 37, 4, 38, 78.
E, 13, 32, 15, 43, 61, 78, 16, 53, 37, 95.
NI, 34, 58, 76, 80, 86, 90.
APIN, 38, 11, 14.
NA, 18, 39, 41.
NA, 18, 15, 22, 25, 34, 45.
KAL, KANKAL, nidûtu, 13, 18, 16, 48.
LAM, maḫîru, 18, 20, 21.
BA, 30, 84, 91.
SAR, amêlu urḳu, 16, 12, 13, 20, 27, 41, 60, 63, 71, 74.
SU, 30, 22, 55, 40, 61.
ŠAL, 30, 60, 31, 20.
GA, 32, 50, 96, 33, 10.
DU, 33, 50, 56, 63, 34, 96; NER.
TUK, ekûtu, 40, 61.
TUR, labuttû, 11, 40, 49, 52, 63.
BA, 30, 84, 91.
PA, 11, 39, 48, 51, 62.
BA, 30, 84, 91.
GAL, ukullû, 37, 78.
GUR, 13, 33, 15, 44, 62, 16, 1, 54, 36, 64, 88, 90, 37, 96, 38, 2, 7, 25; ŠE.
ZIR, zîru, 37, 78, 91.
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Law Code of Hammurabi Formerly a region of much conflict, the Babylonian Kingdom unified Sumerian and Akkadian city-states under King Hammurabi. King Hammurabi was the first king of Babylon, he reigned from 1792-1750 B.C.E. (Arts and Culture).During his reign Babylon became a great metropolis.


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King Hammurabi of Babylonia - Biographical Profile
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Code of Hammurabi - Wikipedia
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Becoming King When Hammurabi turned eighteen years old, his father became very sick. Soon his father died and young Hammurabi was crowned king of the city-state of Babylon. At this time, Babylon was a fairly small kingdom. There were many other larger kingdoms surrounding Babylon including Assyria, Mari, Larsa, and Eshnunna.


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The Code of Hammurabi - Online Library of Liberty
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Full text of "Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon" See other formats CJortifU Slam ^rlyool Kibtary CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 060 109 703 rl H\ Cornell University Library The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library.


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The Code of Hammurabi [Hammurabi, C. H. W. Johns] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The Code of Hammurabi is one of the most important monuments in the history of the human race. Containing as it does the laws which were enacted by a king of Babylonia in the third millennium B.C.


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Law Code of Hammurabi, king of Babylon | Louvre Museum | Paris
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The code of laws published by Hammurabi's order in every city of his realm has survived in several copies.
The most complete was a stele of polished black diorite, standing eight feet high at Susa, whither it had been carried by a later conqueror.
The laws, originally 282 in number, do not form a complete code in the modern sense but are rather a series of enactments dealing with specific cases in which reform or clarification was needed.
They deal with a variety of subjects: marriage and inheritance, slavery, debt and usury, and the activities of trader, farmer, and tavern keeper.
Compensation for specific injuries, the fees of surgeon and barber and veterinarian, a scale of punishments for assault and theft, the wages of laborers, and charges for the hire of boats and livestock are all laid down.
The Code of Hammurabi 1.
If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death.
If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house.
But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, and he escape unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser.
If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death.
If he satisfy the elders to impose a bonus 888 com sign up of grain or money, he shall receive the fine that the action produces.
If a judge try a case, reach a decision, and present his judgment in writing; if later error shall appear in his decision, and it be through his own fault, then he shall pay twelve times the fine set by him in the case, and he shall be publicly removed from the judge's bench, and never again shall he sit there to render judgement.
If any one steal the property of a temple or of the court, he shall be put to death, and also the one who receives the stolen thing from him shall be put to death.
If any one buy from the son or the slave of another man, without witnesses or a contract, silver or gold, a male or female slave, an ox or a sheep, an ass or anything, or if he take it in charge, he is considered a thief and shall be put to death.
If any one steal cattle or sheep, or an ass, or a pig or a goat, if it belong to a god or to the court, the thief shall pay thirtyfold therefor; if they belonged to a freed man of the king he shall pay tenfold; if the thief has nothing with which to pay he shall be put to death.
If any one lose an article, and find it in the possession of another: if the person in whose possession the thing is found say "A merchant sold it to me, I paid for it before witnesses," and if the owner of the thing say, "I will bring witnesses who know my property," then shall the purchaser bring the merchant who sold it to him, and the witnesses before whom he bought click to see more, and the owner shall bring witnesses who can identify his property.
The judge shall examine their testimony—both of the witnesses before whom the price was paid, and of the witnesses who identify the lost article on oath.
The merchant is then proved to be a thief and shall be put to death.
The owner of the lost article receives his property, and he who bought it receives the money he paid from the estate of the merchant.
If the purchaser does not bring the merchant and the witnesses before whom he bought the article, but its owner bring witnesses who identify it, then the buyer code of hammurabi king of babylon the thief and shall be put to death, and the owner receives the lost article.
If the owner do not bring witnesses to identify the lost article, he is an evil-doer, he has traduced, and shall be put to death.
If the witnesses be not at hand, then shall the judge set a limit, at the expiration of six months.
If his witnesses have not appeared within the six months, he is an evil-doer, and shall bear the fine of the pending case.
If any one steal the minor son of another, he shall be put to death.
If any one take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates, he shall be put to death.
If any one receive into his house a runaway male or female slave of the court, or of a freedman, and does not bring it out at the public proclamation of the major domus, the master of the house shall be put to death.
If any one find runaway male or female slaves in the open country and bring them to their masters, the master of the slaves shall pay him two shekels of silver.
If the slave will not give the name of the master, the finder shall bring him to the palace; a further investigation must follow, and the slave shall be returned to his master.
If he hold the slaves in his house, and they are caught there, he shall be put to 888 casino no deposit bonus 88 />If the slave that he caught run away from him, then shall he swear to the owners of the slave, and he is free of all blame.
If any one break a hole into a house break in to stealhe shall be put to death before that hole and be buried.
If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death.
If the robber is not caught, then shall he who was robbed code of hammurabi king of babylon under oath the amount of his loss; then shall the community, and.
If persons are stolen, then shall the community and.
If fire break out in a house, and some one who comes to put it out cast his eye upon the property of the owner of the house, and take the property of the master of the house, he shall be thrown into that self-same fire.
If a chieftain or a man common soldierwho has been ordered to go upon the king's highway for war does not go, but hires a mercenary, if he withholds the compensation, then shall this officer or man be put to death, and he who represented him shall take possession of his house.
If a chieftain or man be caught in the misfortune of the king captured in battleand if his fields and garden be given to another and code of hammurabi king of babylon take possession, if he return and reaches his place, his field and garden shall be returned to him, he shall take it over again.
If a chieftain or a man be caught in the misfortune of a king, if his son is able to enter into possession, then the field and garden shall be given to him, he shall take over the fee of his father.
If his son is still young, and can not take possession, a third of the field and garden shall be given to his mother, and she shall bring him up.
If a chieftain or a man leave his house, garden, and field and hires it out, and someone else takes possession of his house, garden, and field and uses it for three years: if the first owner return and claims his house, garden, and field, it shall not be given to him, but he who has taken possession of it and used it shall continue to use it.
If he hire it out for one year and then return, the house, garden, and field shall be given poker 888 to him, and he shall take it over again.
If a chieftain or a man is captured on the "Way of the King" in warand a merchant buy him free, and bring him back to his place; if he have the means in his house to buy his freedom, he shall buy himself free: if he have nothing in his house with which to buy himself free, he shall be bought free by the temple of his community; if there be nothing in the temple with which to buy him free, the court shall buy his freedom.
His field, garden, and house shall not be given for the purchase of his freedom.
If any one buy the cattle or sheep which the king has given to chieftains from him, he loses his money.
The field, garden, and house of a chieftain, of a man, or of one subject to quit-rent, can not be sold.
If any one buy the field, garden, and house of a chieftain, man, or one subject to quit-rent, his contract tablet of sale shall be broken declared invalid and he loses his money.
The field, garden, and house return to their owners.
A chieftain, man, or one subject to quit-rent can not assign his tenure of field, house, and garden to his wife or daughter, nor can he assign it for a debt.
He may, however, assign a field, garden, or house which he has bought, and holds as property, to his wife or daughter or give it for debt.
He may sell field, garden, and house to a merchant royal agents or to any other public official, the buyer holding field, house, and garden for its usufruct.
If any one fence in the field, garden, and house of a chieftain, man, or one subject to quit-rent, furnishing the palings therefor; if the chieftain, man, or one subject to quit-rent return to field, garden, and house, the palings which were given to him become his property.
If any one take over a field to till it, and obtain no harvest therefrom, it must be proved that he did no work on the field, and he must deliver grain, just as his neighbor raised, to the owner of the field.
If he do not till the field, but let it lie fallow, he shall give grain like his neighbor's to the owner of the field, and the field which he let lie fallow he must plow and sow and return to its owner.
If any one take over a waste-lying field to make it arable, but is lazy, and does not make it arable, he shall plow the fallow field in the fourth year, harrow it and till it, and give it back to its owner, and for each ten gan a measure of area ten gur of grain shall be paid.
If a man rent his field for tillage for a fixed rental, and receive the rent of his field, but bad weather comes and destroy the harvest, the injury falls upon the tiller of the soil.
If he do not receive a fixed rental for his field, but lets it on half or third shares of the harvest, the grain on the field shall be divided proportionately between the tiller and the owner.
If the tiller, because he did not succeed in the first year, has had the soil tilled by others, the owner may raise no objection; the field has been cultivated and he receives the harvest according to agreement.
If any one owe a debt for a loan, and a storm prostrates the grain, or the harvest fail, or the grain does not grow for lack of water; in that year he need not give his creditor any grain, he washes his debt-tablet in water and pays no rent for this year.
If any one take money from a merchant, and give the merchant a field tillable for corn or sesame and order him to plant corn or sesame in the field, and to harvest the crop; if the cultivator plant corn or sesame in the field, at the harvest the corn or sesame that is in the field shall belong to the owner of the field and he shall pay corn as rent, for the money he received from the merchant, and the livelihood of the cultivator shall he give to the merchant.
If he give a cultivated corn-field or a cultivated sesame-field, the corn or sesame in the field shall belong to the owner of the field, and he shall return the money to the merchant as rent.
If he have no money to repay, then he shall pay in corn or sesame in place of the money as rent for what he received from the merchant, according to the royal tariff.
If the cultivator do not plant corn or sesame in the field, the debtor's contract is not weakened.
If any one be too lazy to keep his dam in proper condition, and does not so keep it; if then the dam break and all the fields be flooded, then shall he in whose dam the break occurred be sold for money, and the money shall replace the corn which he has caused to be ruined.
If he be not able to replace the corn, then he and his possessions shall be divided among the farmers whose corn he has flooded.
If any one open his ditches to water his crop, but is careless, and the water flood the field of his neighbor, then he shall pay his neighbor corn for his loss.
If a man let in the water, and the water overflow the plantation of his neighbor, he shall pay ten gur of corn for every ten gan of land.
If a shepherd, without the permission of the click at this page of the field, and without the knowledge of the owner of the sheep, lets the sheep into a field to graze, then the owner of the field shall harvest his crop, and the shepherd, who had pastured his flock there without permission of the owner of the field, shall pay to the owner twenty gur of corn for every ten gan.
If after the flocks have left the pasture and been shut up in the common fold at the city gate, go here shepherd let them into a field and they graze there, this shepherd shall take possession of the field which he has allowed to be grazed on, and at the harvest he must pay sixty gur of corn for every ten gan.
If any man, without the knowledge of the owner of a garden, fell a tree in a garden he shall pay half a mina in money.
If any one give over a field to a gardener, for him to plant it as a garden, if he work at it, and care for it for four years, in the fifth year the owner and the gardener shall divide it, the owner taking his part in charge.
If the gardener has not completed the planting of the field, leaving one part unused, this shall be assigned to him as his.
If he do not plant the field that was given over to him as a garden, if it be arable land for corn or sesame the gardener shall pay the owner the produce of the field for the years that he let it lie fallow, according to the product of neighboring fields, put the field in arable condition and return it to its owner.
If he transform waste land into arable fields and return it to its owner, the latter shall pay him for one year ten gur for ten gan.
If any one hand over his garden to a gardener to work, the gardener shall pay to its owner two-thirds of the produce of the garden, for so long as he has it in possession, and the other third shall he keep.
If the gardener do not work in the garden and the product fall off, the gardener shall pay in proportion to other neighboring gardens.
If there are no mercantile arrangements in the place whither he went, he shall leave the entire amount of money which he received with the broker to give to the merchant.
If a merchant entrust money to an agent broker for some investment, and the broker suffer a loss in the place to which he goes, he shall make good the capital to the merchant.
If, while on the journey, an enemy take away from him anything that he had, the broker shall swear by God and be free of obligation.
If a merchant give an agent corn, wool, oil, or any other goods to transport, the agent shall give a receipt for the amount, and compensate the merchant therefor.
Then he shall obtain a receipt form the merchant for the money that he gives the merchant.
If the agent is careless, and does not take a receipt for the money which he gave the merchant, he can not consider the unreceipted money as his own.
If the agent accept money from the merchant, but have a quarrel with the merchant denying the receiptthen shall the merchant swear before God and witnesses that he has given this money to the agent, and the agent shall pay him three times the sum.
If the merchant cheat the agent, in that as the latter has returned to him all that had been given him, but the merchant denies the receipt of what had been returned to him, then shall this agent convict the merchant before God and the judges, and if he still deny receiving what the agent had given him shall pay please click for source times the sum to the agent.
If a tavern-keeper feminine does not accept corn according to gross weight in payment of drink, but takes money, and the price of the drink is less than that of the corn, she shall be convicted and thrown into the water.
If conspirators meet in the house of a tavern-keeper, and these conspirators are not captured and delivered to the court, the tavern-keeper shall be put to death.
If a "sister of a god" open a tavern, or enter a tavern to drink, then shall this woman be burned to death.
If an inn-keeper furnish sixty ka of usakani-dink to.
If any one be on a journey and entrust silver, gold, precious stones, or any movable property read article another, and wish to recover it from him; if the latter do not bring all of the property to the appointed place, but appropriate it to his own use, then shall this man, who did not bring the property to hand it over, be convicted, and he shall pay fivefold for all that had been entrusted to him.
If any one have consignment of corn or money, and he take from the granary or box without the knowledge of the owner, then shall he who took corn without the knowledge of the owner out of the granary or money out of the box be legally convicted, and repay the corn he has taken.
And he shall lose whatever commission was paid to him, or due him.
If a man have no claim on another for corn and money, and try to demand it by force, he shall pay one-third of a mina of silver in every case.
If any one have a claim for corn or money upon another and imprison him; if the prisoner die in prison a natural death, the case shall go no further.
If the prisoner die in prison from blows or maltreatment, the master of the prisoner shall convict the merchant before the judge.
If he was a free-born man, the son of the merchant shall be put to death; if it was a slave, he shall pay one-third of a mina of gold, and all that the master of the prisoner gave he shall forfeit.
If any one fail to meet a claim for debt, and sell himself, his wife, his son, and daughter for money or give them away to forced labor: they shall work for three years in the house of the man who bought them, or the proprietor, and in the fourth year they shall be set free.
If he give a male or female slave away for forced labor, and the merchant sublease them, or sell them for money, no objection can be raised.
If any one fail to meet a claim for debt, and he sell the maid servant who has borne him children, for money, the money which the merchant has paid shall be repaid to him by the owner of the slave and she shall be freed.
If any one store corn for safe keeping in another person's house, and any harm happen to the corn in storage, or if the owner of the house open the granary and take some of the corn, or if especially he deny that the corn was stored in his house: then the owner of the corn shall claim his corn before God on oathand the owner of the house shall pay its owner for all of the corn that he took.
If any one store corn in another man's house he shall pay him storage at the rate of one gur for every five ka of corn per year.
If any one give another silver, gold, or anything else to keep, he shall show everything to some witness, draw up a contract, and then hand it over for safe keeping.
If he turn it over for safe keeping without witness or contract, and if he to whom it was given deny it, 888 money he has no legitimate claim.
If any one deliver silver, gold, or anything else to another for safe keeping, before a witness, but he deny it, he shall be brought before a judge, and all that he has denied he shall pay in full.
If any one place his property with another for safe keeping, and there, either through thieves or robbers, his property and the property of the other man be lost, the owner of the house, through whose neglect the loss took place, shall compensate the owner for all that was given to him in charge.
But the owner of the house shall try to follow up and recover his property, and take it away from the thief.
If any one who has not lost his goods state that they have been lost, and make false claims: if he claim his goods and amount of injury before God, even though he has not lost them, he shall be fully compensated for all his loss claimed.
If any one "point the finger" slander at a sister of a god or the wife of any one, and can not prove it, this man shall be taken before the judges and his brow shall be marked.
If a man take a woman to wife, but have no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him.
If a man's wife be surprised in flagrante delicto with another man, both shall be tied and thrown into the water, but the husband may pardon his wife and the king his slaves.
If a man violate the wife betrothed or child-wife of another man, who has never known a man, and still lives in her father's house, and sleep with her and be surprised, this man shall be put to death, but the wife is blameless.
If a man bring a charge against one's wife, but she is not surprised with another man, she must take an oath and then may return to her house.
If the "finger is pointed" at a man's wife about another man, but she is not caught sleeping with the other man, she shall jump into the river for her husband.
If a man is taken prisoner in war, and there is a sustenance in his house, but his wife leave house and court, and go to another house: because this wife did not keep her court, and went to another house, she shall be judicially condemned and thrown into the water.
If any one be captured in war and there is not sustenance in his house, if then his wife go to another house this woman shall be held blameless.
If a man be taken prisoner in war and there be no sustenance in his house and his wife go to another house and bear children; and if later her husband return and come to his home: then this wife shall return to her husband, but the children follow their father.
If any one leave his house, run away, and then his wife go to another house, if then he return, and wishes to take his wife back: because he fled from his home and ran away, the wife of this runaway shall not return to her husband.
If a man wish to separate from a woman who has borne him children, or from his wife who has borne him children: then he shall give that wife her dowry, and a part of the usufruct of field, garden, and property, so that she can rear her children.
When she has brought up her children, a portion of all that is given to the children, equal as that of one son, shall be given to her.
She may then marry the man of her heart.
If a man wishes to separate from his wife who has borne him no children, he shall give her the amount of her purchase money and the dowry which she brought from her father's house, and let her go.
If there was no purchase price he shall give her one mina of gold as a gift of release.
If he be a freed man he shall give her one-third of a mina of gold.
If a man's wife, who lives in his house, wishes to leave it, plunges into debt, tries to ruin her house, neglects her husband, and is judicially convicted: if her husband offer her release, she may go on her way, and he gives her nothing as a gift of release.
If her husband does not wish to release her, and if he take another wife, she shall remain as servant in her husband's house.
If a woman quarrel with her husband, and say: "You are not congenial to me," the reasons for her prejudice must be presented.
If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father's house.
If she is not innocent, but leaves her husband, and ruins her house, neglecting her husband, this woman shall be cast into the water.
If a man take a wife and this woman give her husband a maid-servant, and she bear him children, but this man wishes to take another wife, this shall not be permitted to him; he shall not take a second wife.
If a man take a wife, and she bear him no children, and he intend to take another wife: if he take this second wife, and bring her into the house, this second wife shall not be allowed equality with his wife.
If a man take a wife and she give this man a maid-servant as wife and she bear him children, and then this maid assume equality with the wife: because she has borne him children her master shall not sell her for money, but he may keep her as a slave, reckoning her among the maid-servants.
If she have not borne him children, then her mistress may sell her for money.
If a man take a wife, and she be seized by disease, if he then desire to take a second wife he shall not put away his wife, who has been attacked by disease, but he shall keep her in the house which he has built and support her so long as she lives.
If this woman does not wish to remain in her husband's house, then he shall compensate her for the dowry that she brought with her from her father's house, and she may go.
If a man give his wife a field, garden, and house and a deed therefor, if then after the death of her husband the sons raise no claim, then the mother may bequeath all to one of her sons whom she prefers, and need leave nothing to his brothers.
If a woman who lived in a man's house made an agreement with her husband, that no creditor can arrest her, and has given a document therefor: if that man, before he married that woman, had a debt, the creditor can not hold the woman for it.
But if the woman, before she entered the man's house, had contracted a debt, her creditor can not arrest her husband therefor.
If after the woman had entered the man's house, both contracted a debt, both must pay the merchant.
If the wife of one man on account of another man has their mates her husband and the other man's wife murdered, both of them shall be impaled.
If a man be guilty of incest with his daughter, he shall be driven from the place exiled.
If a man betroth a girl to his son, and his son have intercourse with her, but he the father afterward defile her, and be surprised, then he shall be bound and cast into the water drowned.
If a man betroth a girl to his son, but his son has not known her, and if then he defile her, he shall pay her half a gold mina, and compensate her for all that she brought out of her father's house.
She may marry the man of her heart.
If any one be guilty of incest with his mother after his father, both shall be burned.
If any one be surprised after his father with his chief wife, who has borne children, he shall be driven out of his father's house.
If any one, who has brought chattels into his father-in-law's house, and has paid the purchase-money, looks for another wife, and says to his father-in-law: "I do not want your daughter," the girl's father may keep all that he had brought.
If a man bring chattels into the house of his father-in-law, and pay the "purchase price" for his wife : if then the father of the girl say: "I will not give you my daughter," he shall give him back all that he brought with him.
If a man bring chattels into his father-in-law's house and pay the "purchase price," if then his friend slander him, and his father-in-law say to the young husband: "You shall not marry my daughter," the he shall give back to him undiminished all that he had brought with him; but his wife shall not be married to the friend.
If a man marry a woman, and she bear sons to him; if then this woman die, then shall her father have no claim on https://spin-casinos-deposit.website/888/888-games-welcome-bonus.html dowry; this belongs to her sons.
If a man marry a woman and she bear him no sons; if then this woman die, if the "purchase price" which he had paid into the house of his father-in-law is repaid to him, her husband shall have no claim upon the dowry of this woman; it belongs to her father's house.
If his father-in-law do not pay back to him the amount of the "purchase price" he may subtract the amount of the "Purchase price" from the dowry, and then pay the remainder to her father's house.
If a man give to one of his sons whom he prefers a field, garden, and house, and a deed therefor: if later the father die, and the brothers divide the estate, then they shall first give him the present of his father, and he shall accept it; and the rest of the paternal property shall they divide.
If a man take wives suggest super princess peach bonus really his son, but take no wife for his minor son, and if then he die: if the sons divide the estate, they shall set aside besides his portion the code of hammurabi king of babylon for the "purchase price" for the minor brother who had taken no wife as yet, and secure a wife for him.
If a man marry a wife and she bear him children: if this wife die and he then take another wife and she bear him children: if then the father die, the sons must not partition the estate according to the mothers, they shall divide the dowries of their mothers only in this way; the paternal estate they shall divide equally with one another.
If a man wish to put his son out of his house, and declare before the judge: "I want to put my son out," then the judge shall examine into his reasons.
If the son be guilty of no great fault, for which he can be rightfully put out, the father shall not put him out.
If he be guilty of a grave fault, which should rightfully deprive him of the filial relationship, the father shall forgive him the first time; but if he be guilty of a grave fault a second time the father may deprive his son of all filial relation.
If his wife bear sons to a man, or his maid-servant have borne sons, and the father while still living says to the children whom his maid-servant has borne: "My sons," and he count them with the sons of his wife; if then the father die, then the sons of the wife and of the maid-servant shall divide the paternal property in common.
The son of the wife is to partition and choose.
If, however, the father while still living did not say to the sons of the maid-servant: "My sons," and then the father dies, then the sons of the maid-servant shall not share with the sons of the wife, but the freedom of the maid and her sons shall be granted.
The sons of the wife shall have no right to enslave the sons of the maid; the wife shall take her dowry from her fatherand the gift that her husband gave her and deeded to her separate from dowry, or the purchase-money paid her fatherand live in the home of her husband: so long as she lives she shall use it, it shall not be sold for money.
Whatever she leaves shall belong to her children.
If her husband made her no gift, she shall be compensated for her gift, and she shall receive a portion from the estate of her husband, equal to that of one child.
If her sons oppress her, to force her out of the house, the judge shall examine into the matter, and if the sons are at fault the woman shall not leave her husband's house.
If the woman desire to leave the house, she must leave to her sons the gift which her husband gave her, but she may take the dowry of her father's house.
Then she may marry the man of her heart.
If this woman bear sons to her second husband, in the place to which she went, and then die, her earlier and later sons shall divide the dowry between them.
If she bear no sons to her second husband, the sons of her first husband shall have the dowry.
If a State slave or the slave of a freed man marry the daughter of a free man, and children are born, the master of the slave shall have no right to enslave the children of the free.
If, however, a State slave or the slave of a freed man marry a man's daughter, and after he marries her she bring a dowry from a father's house, if then they both enjoy it and found a household, and accumulate means, if then the slave die, then she who was free born may take her dowry, and all that her husband and she had earned; she shall divide them into two parts, one-half the master for the slave shall take, and the other half shall the free-born woman take for her children.
If the free-born woman had no gift she shall take all that her husband and she had earned and divide it into two parts; and the master of the slave shall take one-half and she shall take the other for her children.
If a widow, whose children are not grown, wishes to enter another house remarryshe shall not enter it without the knowledge of the judge.
If she enter another house the judge shall examine the state of the house of her first husband.
Then the house of her first husband shall be entrusted to the second husband and the woman herself as managers.
And a record must be made thereof.
She shall keep the house in order, bring up the children, and not sell the house-hold utensils.
He who buys the utensils of the children of a widow shall lose his money, and the goods shall return to their owners.
If a "devoted woman" or a prostitute to whom her father has given a dowry and a deed therefor, but if in this deed it is not stated that she may bequeath it as she pleases, and has not explicitly stated that she has the right of disposal; if then her father die, then her brothers shall hold her field and garden, and give her corn, oil, and milk according to her portion, and satisfy her.
If her brothers do not give her corn, oil, and milk according to her share, then her field and garden shall support her.
She shall have the usufruct of field and garden and all that her father gave her so long as she lives, but she can not sell or assign it to others.
Her position of inheritance belongs to her brothers.
If a "sister of a god," or a prostitute, receive a gift from her father, and a deed in which it has been explicitly stated that she may dispose of it as she pleases, and give her complete disposition thereof: if then her father die, then she may leave her property to whomsoever she pleases.
Her brothers can raise no claim thereto.
If a father give a present to his daughter—either marriageable or a prostitute unmarriageable —and then die, then she is to receive a portion as a child from the paternal estate, and enjoy its usufruct so long as she lives.
Her estate belongs to her brothers.
If a father devote a temple-maid or temple-virgin to God and give her no present: if then the father die, she shall receive the third of a child's portion from the inheritance of her father's house, and enjoy its usufruct so long as she lives.
Her estate belongs to her brothers.
If a father devote his daughter as a wife of Mardi of Babylon as in 181and give her no present, nor a deed; if then her father die, then shall she receive one-third of her portion as a child of her father's house from her brothers, but Marduk may leave her estate to whomsoever she wishes.
If a man give his daughter by a concubine a dowry, and a husband, and a deed; if then her father die, she shall receive no portion from the paternal estate.
If a man do not give a dowry to his daughter by a concubine, and no husband; if then her father die, her brother shall give her a dowry according to her father's wealth and secure a husband for her.
If a man adopt a child and to his name as son, and rear https://spin-casinos-deposit.website/888/888-casino-bonus-code-eingeben.html, this grown son can not be demanded back again.
If a man adopt a son, and if after he has taken him he injure his foster father and mother, then this adopted son shall return to his father's house.
The son of a paramour in the palace service, or of a prostitute, can not be demanded back.
If an artisan has undertaken to rear a child and teaches him his craft, he can not be demanded back.
If he has not taught him his craft, this adopted son may return to his father's house.
If a man does not maintain a child that he has adopted as a son and reared with his other children, then his adopted son may return to his father's house.
If a man, who had adopted a son and reared him, founded a household, and had children, wish to put this adopted son out, then this son shall not simply go his way.
His adoptive father shall give him of his wealth one-third of a child's portion, and then he may go.
He shall not give him of the field, garden, and house.
If a son of a paramour or a prostitute say to his adoptive father or mother: "You are not my father, or my mother," his tongue shall be cut off.
If the son of a paramour or a prostitute desire his father's house, and desert his adoptive father and adoptive mother, and goes to his father's house, then shall his eye be put out.
If a man give his child to a nurse and the child die in her hands, but the nurse unbeknown to the father and mother nurse another child, then they shall convict her of having nursed another child without the knowledge of the father and mother and her breasts shall be cut off.
If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off.
If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.
If he break another man's bone, his bone shall be broken.
If he put out the eye of a freed man, or break the bone of a freed man, he shall pay one gold mina.
If he put out the eye of a man's slave, or break the bone of a man's slave, he shall pay one-half of its value.
If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out.
If he knock out the teeth of a freed man, he shall pay one-third of a gold mina.
If any one strike the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with an ox-whip in public.
If a free-born man strike the body of another free-born man or equal rank, he shall pay one gold mina.
If a freed man strike the body of another freed man, he shall pay ten shekels in money.
If the slave of a freed man strike the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off.
If during a quarrel one man strike another and wound him, then he shall swear, "I did not injure him wittingly," and pay the physicians.
If the man die of his wound, he shall swear similarly, and if he the deceased was a free-born man, he shall pay half a mina in money.
If he was a freed man, he shall pay one-third of a mina.
If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss.
If the woman die, his daughter shall be put to death.
If a woman of the free class lose her child by a blow, he shall pay five shekels in money.
If this woman die, he shall pay half a mina.
If he strike the maid-servant of a man, and she lose her child, he shall pay two shekels in money.
If this maid-servant die, he shall pay 888 poker promotion code canada of a mina.
If a physician make a large incision with an operating knife and cure it, or if he open a tumor over the eye with an operating knife, and saves the eye, he shall receive ten shekels in money.
If the patient be a freed man, he receives five shekels.
If he be the slave of some one, his owner shall give the physician two shekels.
If a physician make a large incision with the operating knife, and kill him, or open a tumor with the operating knife, and cut out the eye, his hands shall be cut off.
If a physician make a large incision in the slave of a freed man, and kill him, he shall replace the slave with another slave.
If he had opened a tumor with the operating knife, and put out his eye, he shall pay half his value.
If a physician heal the broken bone or diseased soft part of a man, the patient shall pay the physician five shekels in money.
If he were a freed man he shall pay three shekels.
If he were a slave his owner shall pay the physician two shekels.
If a veterinary surgeon perform a serious operation on an ass or an ox, and cure it, the owner shall pay the surgeon one-sixth of a shekel as a fee.
If he perform a serious operation on an ass or ox, and kill it, he shall pay the owner one-fourth of its value.
If a barber, without the knowledge of his master, cut the sign of a slave on a slave not to be sold, the hands of this barber shall be cut off.
If any one deceive a barber, and have him mark a slave not for sale with the sign of a slave, he shall be put to death, and buried in his house.
The barber shall swear: "I did not mark him wittingly," and shall be guiltless.
If a builder build a house for some one and complete it, he shall give him a fee of two shekels in money for each sar of surface.
If it kill the son of the owner the son of that builder shall be put to death.
If it kill a slave of the owner, then he shall pay slave for slave to the owner of the house.
If it ruin goods, he shall make compensation for all that has been ruined, and inasmuch as he did not construct properly this house which he built and it fell, he shall re-erect the house from his own means.
If a builder build a house for some one, even though he has not yet completed it; if then the walls seem toppling, the builder must make the walls solid from his own means.
If a shipbuilder build a boat of sixty gur for a man, he shall pay him a fee of two shekels in money.
If a shipbuilder build a boat for some one, and do not make it tight, if during that same year that boat is sent away and suffers code of hammurabi king of babylon, the shipbuilder shall take the boat apart and put it together tight at his own expense.
The tight boat he shall give to the boat owner.
If a man rent his boat to a sailor, and the sailor is careless, and the boat is wrecked or goes aground, the sailor shall give the owner of the boat another boat as compensation.
If a man hire a sailor and his boat, and provide it with corn, clothing, oil and dates, and other things of the kind needed for fitting it: if the sailor is careless, the boat is wrecked, and its contents ruined, then the sailor shall compensate for the boat which was wrecked and all in it that he ruined.
If a sailor wreck any one's ship, but saves it, he shall pay the half of its value in money.
If a man hire a sailor, he shall pay him six gur of corn per year.
If a merchantman run against a ferryboat, and wreck it, the master of the ship that was wrecked shall seek justice before God; the master of the merchantman, which wrecked the ferryboat, must compensate the owner for the boat and all that he ruined.
If any one impresses an ox for forced labor, he shall pay one-third of a mina in money.
If any one hire oxen for a year, he shall pay four gur of corn for plow-oxen.
As rent of herd cattle he shall pay three gur of corn to the owner.
If any one hire an ox or an ass, and a lion kill it in the field, the loss is upon its owner.
If any one hire oxen, and kill them by bad treatment or blows, he shall compensate the owner, oxen for oxen.
If a man hire an ox, and he break its leg bonus deposit cut the ligament of its neck, he shall compensate the owner with ox for ox.
If any one hire an ox, and put out its code of hammurabi king of babylon, he shall pay the owner one-half of its value.
If any one hire an ox, and break off a horn, or cut off its tail, or hurt its muzzle, he shall pay one-fourth of its value in money.
If any one hire an ox, and God strike it that it die, the man who hired it shall swear by God and be considered guiltless.
If while an ox is passing on the street market some one push it, and kill it, the owner can set up no claim in the suit against the hirer.
If an ox be a goring ox, and it shown that he is a gorer, and he do not bind his horns, or fasten the ox up, and the ox gore a free-born man and kill him, the owner shall pay one-half a mina in money.
If he kill a man's slave, he shall pay one-third of a mina.
If any one agree with another to tend his field, give him seed, entrust a yoke of oxen to him, and bind him to cultivate the field, if he steal the corn or plants, and take them for himself, his hands shall be hewn off.
If he take the seed-corn for himself, and do not use the yoke of oxen, he shall compensate him for the amount of the seed-corn.
If he sublet the man's yoke of oxen or steal the seed-corn, planting nothing in the field, he shall be convicted, and for each one hundred gan he shall pay sixty gur of corn.
If his community will not pay for him, then he shall be placed in that field with the cattle at work.
If any one hire a field laborer, he shall pay him eight gur of corn per year.
If any one hire an ox-driver, he shall pay him six gur of corn per year.
If any one steal a water-wheel from the field, he shall pay five shekels in money to its owner.
If any one steal a shadduf used to draw water from the river or canal or a plow, he shall pay three shekels in money.
If any one hire a herdsman for cattle or sheep, he shall pay him eight gur of corn per annum.
If any one, a cow or a sheep.
If he kill the cattle or sheep that were given to him, he shall compensate the owner with cattle for cattle and sheep for sheep.
If 888 poker ipad bonus no deposit herdsman, to whom cattle or sheep have been entrusted for watching over, and who has received his wages as agreed upon, and is satisfied, diminish the number of the cattle or sheep, or make the increase by birth less, he shall make good the increase or profit which was lost in the terms of settlement.
If a herdsman, to whose care cattle or sheep have been entrusted, be guilty of fraud and make false returns of the natural increase, or sell them for money, then shall he be convicted and pay the owner ten times the loss.
If the animal be killed in the stable by God an accidentor if a lion kill it, the herdsman shall declare his innocence before God, and the owner bears the accident in the stable.
If the herdsman overlook something, and an accident happen in the stable, then the herdsman is at fault for the accident which he has caused in the stable, and he must compensate the owner for the cattle or sheep.
If any one hire an ox for threshing, the amount of the hire is twenty ka of corn.
If he hire an ass for threshing, the hire is twenty ka of corn.
If he https://spin-casinos-deposit.website/888/888-casino-deposit.html a young animal for threshing, the hire is ten ka of corn.
If any one hire oxen, cart and driver, he shall pay one hundred and eighty ka of corn per day.
If any one hire a cart alone, he shall pay forty ka of corn per day.
If any one hire a day laborer, he shall pay him from the New Year until the fifth month April to August, when days are long and the work hard six gerahs in money per day; from the sixth month to the end of the year he shall give him five gerahs per day.
If any one hire a skilled artisan, he shall pay as wages of the.
If any one hire a ferryboat, he shall pay three gerahs in money per day.
If he hire a freight-boat, he shall pay two and one-half gerahs per day.
If any one hire a ship of sixty gur, he shall pay one-sixth of a shekel in money as its hire per day.
If any one buy a male or female slave, and before a month has elapsed the benu-disease be developed, he shall return the slave to the seller, and receive the money which he had paid.
If any one by a male or female slave, and a third party claim it, the seller is liable for the claim.
If while in a foreign country a man buy a male or female slave belonging to another of his own country; if when he return home the owner of the male or female slave recognize it: if the male or female slave be a native of the country, he shall give them back without any money.
If they are from another country, the buyer shall declare the amount of money paid therefor to the merchant, and keep the male or female slave.
If a slave say to his master: "You are not my master," if they convict him his master shall cut off his ear.

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Hammurabi of the city state of Babylon conquered much of northern and western Mesopotamia and by 1776 B.C.E., he is the most far-reaching leader of Mesopotamian history, describing himself as “the king who made the four quarters of the earth obedient.”


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The Code of Hammurabi is inscribed on this seven-foot basalt stele.
The stele is now at the Louvre.
Credit: The Code of Hammurabi refers to a set of rules or laws enacted by the Babylonian King Hammurabi reign 1792-1750 B.
The code governed the people living in his fast-growing empire.
By the time of Hammurabi's death, his empire included much of modern-day Iraq, extending up from the Persian Gulf along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
The code is best known from a stele made of black diorite, more than seven feet 2.
The stele code of hammurabi king of babylon found at the site of Susa, in modern-day Iran, by excavators who were led by Jacques de Morgan at the beginning of the 20th century.
Scholars believe that it was brought to Susa in the 12th century B.
Originally, Hammurabi would have displayed the stele at the site of Sippar, in modern-day Iraq, likely in a prominent temple.
Scholars widely believe that other, now lost, steles would have existed code of hammurabi king of babylon other cities in that were controlled by Hammurabi.
Regardless of the answers to these questions, Hammurabi himself states in the prologue to his laws that his right to make them was one given by the gods themselves.
Dieter Viel, University Press of America, 2012 A harsh and unequal law Each law consists of a potential case followed by a prescribed verdict.
The verdicts could be very harsh indeed, and Columbia University professor Marc van de Mieroop notes in his book "King Hammurabi of Babylon" Blackwell Publishing, 2005 that the death penalty is listed as punishment no fewer than 30 times.
Furthermore, the punishments ordered were by no means uniform but rather depended on the social status of the accused and the was 888 blackjack bonus card apologise />For instance, van de Mieroop notes that if a member of the elite blinded a commoner or broke the commoner's bone, that elite person had to pay one pound of silver as penalty.
Women could not necessarily code of hammurabi king of babylon equal treatment either.
On the other hand a woman could, depending on the circumstances, get an inheritance.
There were laws protecting a woman in the event that her husband was taken captive in war and had code of hammurabi king of babylon live with another man when her food ran out.
There were also laws that governed the support a temple-woman should receive from her brothers after her father had died.
Burden on the accuser and judges In the laws, it is clear that not only is there a burden on the accused but also on the accuser should code mcdonalds jackpot monopoly be unable to prove their case.
Dieter Viel Judges were also held to a certain standard in the laws.
Hammurabi ruled a vast empire and would not have been able to rule on every case himself.
Detail of the Code of Hammurabi.
The laws were chiselled into the basalt stele in cuneiform.
Credit: How were the laws formed?
Hammurabi was not the first ruler in the Middle East to write down laws.
Dominique Charpin, a professor at École Pratique des Hautes Études in Paris, writes in his book "Writing, Law and Kingship in Old Babylonian Mesopotamia" University of Chicago Press, 2010 that scholars know of the existence of three law codes, set code of hammurabi king of babylon by kings, that preceded Hammurabi.
The oldest was written by Ur-Nammu, a king of Ur, who reigned 2111-2094 B.
In addition, Hammurabi would probably have drawn on his own personal experiences in putting together his laws, basing them in code of hammurabi king of babylon on past cases that he had ruled on.
A full law code?
For instance, van de Mieroop notes that the code does not cover every dispute that could have arisen and contains inconsistencies.
Charpin notes that, even if one could read, the stele would be difficult to use as a reference to look up a law.
The second point the epilogue makes is that the kings who succeed Hammurabi should not change or disregard these laws or try to alter the identity of the person who made them.
If any future ruler does try this Hammurabi puts a lengthy curse on them.
Owen has a bachelor of arts degree from the University of Toronto and a journalism degree from Ryerson University.
He enjoys reading about new research and is always looking for a new code of hammurabi king of babylon tale.
Owen Jarus, Live Science Contributor on.

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"Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, on whom Shamash has conferred the law, am I." "An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth." This phrase, along with the idea of written laws, goes back to ancient Mesopotamian culture that prospered long before the Bible was written or the civilizations of the.


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Code of Hammurabi: Ancient Babylonian Laws
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…on which is inscribed the Code of Hammurabi, who was a Babylonian king of the 18th century bce. This code includes laws relating to the practice of medicine, and the penalties for failure were severe. For example, “If the doctor, in opening an abscess, shall kill the patient, his hands…


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Law Code Stele of King Hammurabi – Smarthistory
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Code of Hammurabi (Babylonian law code of Mesopotamia)

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The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology). It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code. A partial copy exists on a 2.25 meter (7.5 ft) stone stele.


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King Hammurabi of Babylonia - Biographical Profile
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Gill is a freelance classics and ancient history writer.
She has a master's degree in linguistics and is a former Latin teacher.
He united Mesopotamia and turned Babylonia into an important power.
Hammurabi is now synonymous with hisreferred to as the Code of Hammurabi.
Five columns of the on which his laws were written inscribed have been erased.
Scholars estimate the total number of legal judgments contained on the stele when it was intact would have been casino bonus codes 300.
The stele may not actually contain laws, per se, as judgments made by Hammurabi.
By recording the judgments he made, the stele would have served to testify to and honor King Hammurabi's acts and deeds.
Hammurabi may have been the Biblical Amraphel, King of Sennaar, mentioned in code of hammurabi king of babylon Bible book of Genesis.
Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian dynasty -- about 4000 years ago.
We don't code of hammurabi king of babylon for sure when -- during a general period running from 2342 to 1050 B.
Put that date in context by looking at the.
He then conquered the land west of Elam, Iamuthala, and Larsa.
Following these conquests, Hammurabi called himself King of Akkad and Sumer.
Hammurabi also conquered Rabiqu, Dupliash, Kar-Shamash, Turukku?
His kingdom extended to Assyria and northern.
In addition to being a warrior, Hammurabi built temples, dug canals, promoted agriculture, established justice, and promoted literary activity.

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History >> Ancient Mesopotamia The first great king of Babylon was King Hammurabi.He conquered all of Mesopotamia and established the first Babylonian Empire. Hammurabi also established a set of laws that is today called the Code of Hammurabi.


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Law Code of Hammurabi, king of Babylon | Louvre Museum | Paris
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Hammurabi was an Amorite First Dynasty king of the city-state of Babylon, and inherited the power from his father, Sin-Muballit, in c. 1792 BC. Babylon was one of the many largely Amorite ruled city-states that dotted the central and southern Mesopotamian plains and waged war on each other for control of fertile agricultural land.


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The most important of which is the stele of Hammurabi, upon which was engraved his code of laws, c. 2,250 B.C. Two translations of this code have been made, one into French by Scheil, the assyriologist of the French Expedition to Persia, of which M. de Morgan is the director, and the other into German by Dr. Hugo Winckler.


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A side view of the "fingertip".
It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world.
The sixth Babylonian king,enacted the code.
A partial copy exists on a 2.
It consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "ana tooth for a tooth" lex talionis as graded based on depending on social status and gender, of slave versus free, man versus woman.
Nearly half of the code deals with matters of contract, establishing the wages to be paid to an ox driver or a surgeon for example.
Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, the liability of a builder for a house that collapses, code of hammurabi king of babylon property that is damaged while left in the care of another.
A third of the code addresses issues concerning household and family relationships such as inheritance, divorce, paternity, and.
Only one provision appears to impose obligations on an official; this provision establishes that a judge who alters his decision after it is written down is to be fined and removed from the bench permanently.
A few provisions address issues related to military service.
The code was discovered by modern in 1901, and its translation published in 1902 by.
This nearly complete example of the code is carved into a basalt stele in the shape of a huge2.
The code is inscribed in theusing carved into the stele.
Two versions of the Code at the.
click here the preface to the law, he states, " and called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I should rule over the black-headed people likeand enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind.
Some of these laws follow along the rules of "an eye for an eye".
It had been taken as plunder by the king in the 12th century BC and was taken to in located in the present-day of Iran where it was no longer available to the Babylonian people.
However, when brought both Babylon and Susa under the rule of hisand placed copies of the document in thethe text became available for all the peoples of the vast Persian Empire to view.
In 1901, Egyptologista member of an expedition headed byfound the stele containing the Code of Hammurabi during archaeological excavations at the ancient site of Susa in Khuzestan.
The code of laws was arranged in orderly groups, so that all who read the laws would know what was required of them.
Earlier collections of laws include theking of c.
These codes come from similar cultures in a relatively small geographical area, and they have passages which resemble each other.
Figures at the top of the stele "fingernail", above Hammurabi's code of laws.
The Code of Hammurabi is the longest surviving text from the Old Babylonian period.
The code has been seen as an early example of a fundamental law, regulating a government — i.
The code is also one of the earliest examples of the idea ofcode of hammurabi king of babylon it also suggests that both the accused and accuser have the opportunity to provide.
The occasional nature of many provisions suggests that the code may be better understood as a codification of Hammurabi's supplementary judicial decisions, and that, by memorializing his wisdom and justice, its purpose may have been the self-glorification of Hammurabi rather than a modern legal code or constitution.
However, its copying in subsequent generations indicates that it was used as a model of legal and judicial reasoning.
While the Code of Hammurabi was trying to achieve equality, biases still existed against those categorized in the lower end of the social spectrum and some of the punishments and justice could be gruesome.
The magnitude of criminal penalties often was based on the identity and gender of both the person committing the crime and the victim.
The Code issues justice following the three classes of Babylonian society: property owners, freed men, and slaves.
Punishments for someone assaulting someone from a lower class were far lighter than if they had assaulted someone of equal or higher status.
For example, if a doctor killed a rich patient, he would have his hands cut off, but if he killed a slave, only financial restitution was required.
Women could also receive punishments that their male counterparts would not, as men were permitted to have affairs with their servants and slaves, whereas married women would be harshly punished for committing adultery.
Various copies of portions of the Code of Hammurabi have been found on baked clay tablets, some possibly older than the celebrated basalt stele now in the Louvre.
The Prologue of the Code of Hammurabi remarkable, facebook game bonus auto collect are first code of hammurabi king of babylon inscribed squares on the stele is on such a tablet, also at the Louvre Inv AO 10237.
Some gaps in the list of benefits bestowed on cities recently annexed by Hammurabi may imply that it is older than the famous stele currently dated to the early 18th century BC.
Likewise, thepart of thealso has a "Code of Hammurabi" clay tablet, dated to 1790 BC, in Room 5, Inv Ni 2358.
In July 2010, archaeologists reported that a fragmentary Akkadian cuneiform tablet was discovered at, containing a c.
The Hazor law code fragments are currently being prepared for publication by a team from the.
Law 127: "If any one 'point the finger' at a sister of a god or the wife of any one, and can not prove it, this man shall be taken before the judges and his brow shall be marked by cutting the skin, or perhaps hair.
Law 265: "If a herdsman, to whose care cattle or sheep have been entrusted, be guilty of fraud and make false returns of the natural increase, or sell them for money, then shall he be convicted and pay the owner ten times the loss.
Law 15: "If any one take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates, he shall be put to death.
Law 42: "If any one take over a field to till it, and obtain no harvest therefrom, it must be proved that he did no work on the field, and he must deliver grain, just as his neighbor raised, to the owner of the field.
Law 22: "If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death.
Law 104: "If a merchant give an agent corn, wool, oil, or any other goods to transport, the agent shall give a receipt for the amount, and compensate the merchant therefore, he shall obtain a receipt from the merchant for the money that he gives the merchant.
Law 53: "If any one be too apethetic to keep his dam in primly condition, and does not so keep it; if then the dam break and all the fields be code of hammurabi king of babylon, then shall he in whose dam the break occurred be sold for money, and the money shall replace the crops which he has caused to be ruined.
Law 142: "If a woman quarrel with her husband, and say: "You are not congenial to me," the reasons for her prejudice must be presented.
If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry 888 welcome bonus go back to her father's house.
Law 196: "If a man destroy the eye of another man, they shall destroy his eye.
If one break a man's bone, they shall break his bone.
If one destroy the eye of a freeman or break the bone of a freeman he shall pay one gold.
If one destroy the eye of a man's slave or break a bone of a man's slave he shall pay one-half his price.
If a son strikes his father, his hands shall be hewn off.
Law 129: "If the wife of a man has been caught lying with another man, they shall bind them and throw them into the waters.
If the owner of the wife would save his wife then in turn the king could save his servant.
Law 3: "If a man has borne false witness in a trial, or has not established the statement that he has made, if that case be a capital trial, that man shall be put to death.
The American Journal of Theology.
The University of Chicago Press.
The laws were based with scaled punishments, adjusting "" depending on social status and gender.
Archived from on 9 September 2007.
Retrieved 14 September 2007.
Archived from on 1 November 2011.
Retrieved 11 November 2011.
CS1 maint: Archived copy as titleThink Quest, retrieved on 2 Nov 2011.
Retrieved 1 November 2015.
Archived from on 16 September 2007.
Retrieved 14 September 2007.
A: Archaeology and the Bible.
University of Michigan Library, 2009, originally published in 1916 by American Sunday-School Union p.
Barton, a scientist of Semitic languages at the University of Pennsylvania from 1922 to 1931, stated that while there are similarities between the Mosaic Law and the Code of Hammurabi, a study of the entirety of both laws "convinces the student that the laws of the Old Testament are in no essential way dependent upon the Babylonian laws.
William David Thomas, Gareth Stevens 2008 p.
Le Code de Hammourabi et la constitution originaire de la propriete dans l'ancienne Chaldee.
Retrieved 7 September 2017.
Reddish 2008, Code of hammurabi king of babylon />Inside Israel News — Arutz Sheva.
Internet Sacred Text Archive.
Retrieved 17 November 2013.
San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Naylor, Dahia Ibo Shabaka 1999.
World History: Patterns of Interaction.
Evanston, IL: McDougal Luttrell.
Exploring deposit code 888 Primary Sources That Shaped the World: 2350 BCE — 1058 CE.
Dallas, TX: Schlager Group, 2010.
Bear: Mitchell Lane Publishers.
Eugene: Wipf code of hammurabi king of babylon Stock.
Zur Ikonologie und Teleologie des 'Codex' Hammurapi.
In: Baghdader Mitteilungen 37 2006pp.
Die neusumerischen Gerichtsurkunden I—III.
How to Read World History in Art.
New York: Abrams, 2010.
The Oldest Code of Laws in the World.
City: Lawbook Exchange Ltd.
King Hammurabi of Babylon: a Biography.
Documents juridiques de l'Assyrie et de la Chaldee.
Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor.
Memoires de la delegation en Perse.
Documents from Old Testament Times.
London code of hammurabi king of babylon New York.
By using this site, you agree to the and.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of thea non-profit organization.

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Hammurabi, The Code of Hammurabi King of Babylon about 2250 B.C. Autographed Text Transliteration Translation Glossary Index of Subjects Lists of Proper Names Signs Numerals Corrections and Erasures with Map Fronticepiece and Photograph of Text, by Robert Francis Harper (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1904).


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Code of Hammurabi - HISTORY
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This high basalt stele erected by the king of Babylon in the 18th century BC is a work of art, history and literature, and the most complete legal compendium of Antiquity, dating back to earlier than the Biblical laws.
Carried there by a prince from the neighboring country of Elam in Iran in the 12th century BC, the monument was exhibited on the Susa acropolis among other prestigious Mesopotamian masterpieces.
A legal tradition This basalt stele was erected by King Hammurabi of Babylon 1792—1750 BC probably at Sippar, city of the sun god Shamash, god of justice.
Other monuments of this type belonging to a similar tradition were placed in the towns of his kingdom.
Two Sumerian legal documents drawn up by Ur-Namma, king of Ur c.
The Hammurabi Code—the most important legal compendium of the ancient Near East, drafted earlier than the Biblical laws—found its sources in these essays.
The text, which occupies most of the https://spin-casinos-deposit.website/888/888-casino-welcome-bonus-senza-deposito.html, constitutes the raison d'être of the monument.
The principal scene depicted shows the king receiving his investiture from Shamash.
Remarkable for its legal content, this work is also an exceptional source of information about the society, religion, economy, code of hammurabi king of babylon history of this period.
The content of the Code The text is written in cuneiform script and the Akkadian language.
It is divided into three parts: - a historical prologue relating the 888 deposit code of King Hammurabi in his role as "protector of the weak and oppressed," and the formation of his empire and achievements; - a lyrical epilogue summing up his legal work and preparing its perpetuation in the future; - these two literary passages frame a text describing almost three hundred laws and legal decisions governing daily life in the kingdom of Babylon.
The legal part of the text uses everyday language and is here simplified, for the https://spin-casinos-deposit.website/888/facebook-game-bonus-auto-collect.html wanted it to be understood by all.
However, the legal decisions are all constructed in the same manner: a phrase in the conditional sets out a problem of law or social order; it is followed by a response in the future tense, in the form of the code of hammurabi king of babylon for the guilty party or the settlement of a situation: "Should an individual do such and such a thing, such and such a thing will happen to him or her.
The principal subjects are family law, slavery, and professional, commercial, agricultural and administrative law.
Economic measures set prices and salaries.
The longest chapter concerns the family, which formed the basis of Babylonian society.
It deals with engagement, marriage and divorce, adultery and incest, children, adoption code of hammurabi king of babylon inheritance, and the duties of children's nurses.
Every aspect of each case is addressed, enabling the greatest number of observations to be made.
The significance of the monument The Law Code of Hammurabi is valuable first and foremost as a model, being a treatise on the exercise of judiciary power in the context of Mesopotamian science, in which the particular never governs the general.
The observation of several similar cases does not establish a general and universal principle, or law.
It is not a code of laws in the sense that we understand it today, but rather a compendium of legal precedents.
Contradictions and illogicalities two similar cases causing different results can be found in the Code, because it deals with particular judgements, from which the most personal elements the names of the protagonists, for example have been removed.
Because justice was a royal prerogative in Mesopotamia, Hammurabi here sets out a 888 slot free games of the wisest legal decisions that he had to take or ratify.
This stele was, however, more than an educational tool.
It was a code of the rules and prescriptions established code of hammurabi king of babylon a sovereign authority, and therefore a code of laws.
Not only does it contain a list of judicial rulings, but also a catalogue of the towns and territories annexed to the kingdom of Babylon.
The stele of the Babylonian king Hammurabi constitutes a summary of one of the most prestigious reigns of ancient Mesopotamia.
Executed in the last years of the sovereign's life, it was a political testament aimed at future princes, for whom it offered a model of wisdom and equity.
The Code also served as a literary model for the schools of scribes, who were to copy it for 888 poker slots one thousand years.
Bibliography André-Salvini Béatrice, Le Code de Hammurabi, Paris, Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, coll.
Finet André, Le Code de Hammurabi, Éditions du Cerf, coll.
Morgan Jacques de, Jéquier Gustave, "Premier royaume susien", in Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse, vol.
VII, "Recherches archéologiques", 2e série, Paris, 1905, pp.
Roth Martha, Law collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, Scholars Press, Atlanta, 1995.
Scheil Vincent, "Code des lois de Hammurabi Droit Privéroi de Babylone, vers l'an 2000 av.
IV, "Textes élamites et sémitiques", 2e série, Paris, 1902, pp.
Szlechter Émile, Codex Hammurabi, Rome, 1977 transcription, traduction.
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The Babylonian king (1728-1686 B.C.) Hammurabi codified the laws in which (as distinct from the Sumerian) the state could prosecute on its own behalf. The Code of Hammurabi is famous for demanding punishment to fit the crime (the lex talionis, or an eye for an eye) with different treatment for each social class. The Code is thought to be.


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Code of Hammurabi: Ancient Babylonian Laws
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It consisted of 282 set of laws governing every https://spin-casinos-deposit.website/888/888-casino-bonus-code-eingeben.html of life and society in ancient Mesopotamia.
The Babylonian Law Code regulated rights relating to divorce, property, slavery and included commands to protect people from crimes.
These codes also rendered harsh and bizarre punishments for criminal activity.
The codes were written on an impressive stele, still preserved till date.
Strictest but not the oldest Image Credit: One very commonly held belief about these set of laws code of hammurabi king of babylon that they are the oldest law codes from the ancient world.
The truth is-they are not.
Before these law codes were two others, namely Ur-Nammu and Code of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin, a Sumerian law code.
Ur-Nammu law code was inscribed by Ur-Nammu, a ruler of ancient Sumer in 2100-2050 B.
C, whereas, the Lipit-Ishtar of Isin law code was drawn up two centuries before Hammurabi came up with his own set.
However, the Code of Hammurabi was definitely the strictest of all ancient laws.
Some historians claim that the codes are, in-fact, vengeful, unlike other two ancient codes.
The law drawn up had different outcomes for different people.
These were not uniform for all classes.
Also, the punishments meted out were far more gruesome than those that were prescribed in the earlier Sumerian law codes.
Under it, an accused person was not liable to be held guilty unless his crime was proven by the accuser before an audience of elders.
In case, an accuser was not able to prove the crime, then he was liable to be punished by giving a death sentence.
Any kind of dispute between two parties was settled before an authority, like modern laws.
They had the right to bring evidences and proofs, and could fight their case legally.
Under these laws, it was practically impossible for a person to accuse another for a crime without having substantial evidence.
A few of Hammurabi Code Laws were liberal Image Credit: Though, these law codes were class centric and included strict punishments for offenders, yet, these also had a few liberal laws that concerned property rights, divorce rights, matters related with dowry and incest.
Some of these laws were quite modern and fair in their approach.
For example, there was a law that offered protection to debt offenders in cases of climatic emergencies.
He simply had to wash his debt tablet code of hammurabi king of babylon water and was not required to pay any rent.
The existence of multiple specimens of feud money round law code Image Credit: You all will be thrilled to know that there exists not one, but many specimens or objects to have inscriptions of these ancient law codes.
Apart from the famed diorite pillar or stele comprising of 282 carved laws in the language of Akkadian, and standing tall at 7.
The Louvre in Paris houses one clay tablet that bears the prologue of this code.
It code of hammurabi king of babylon of the first 305 squares that are found drawn on the diorite pillar.
Apart from these, there is another 1700 B.
C tablet in clay that too bears this Babylonian Law Code in cuneiform Akkadian script.
This tablet was found in a place called Tel Hazor.
The discrimination of slaves under Hammurabi Law Code Image Credit: The law code of Hammurabi was liberal and quite modern in many respects.
But, it, nevertheless discriminated against slaves.
The government promoted laws to ill treat slaves like former prisoners of war and the families of such people.
A slave was given harsh punishments for small things, like, his eye could be damaged if he had attacked an upper class man and damaged his eye.
For damaging the eye of code of hammurabi king of babylon common man, the slave was required to pay him one silver mina.
In case more info had caused damage to a slave of an upper class man, he had to pay the man the price of his slave in half.
There were other similar punishments that were meted out to the slaves, and all were aimed at ill treating them.
Or was it simply a royal propaganda used by Hammurabi to present himself as a great world ruler?
Nothing is clear till date, though, we do get a hands-on information relating to the class of people Hammurabi ruled, their social structure, their culture and their economy.
Its quite possible that these set of laws were just inscribed on the stele and kept as a showpiece for the public to see.
Some historians also have the opinion that the language used in the stele could have made reading the laws practically impossible for commoners.
The stipulation of a minimum wage for all workers Image Credit: The code may have been biased, but, it was way ahead of its times as it brought out a stipulated minimum code of hammurabi king of babylon for all workers working in ancient Babylonian society.
It is quiet surprising to know that the set of laws created by Hammurabi were actually beneficial for all workers like slaves, doctors, sailors and herdsmen.
All workers had to be paid a minimum wage instituted by the state.
For example, a doctor was paid 5 shekels for treating a bone injury of a free man.
The herdsmen and farmers were paid 8 gur of corn each year, whereas, the freed slaves were paid three shekels.
The slaves were at the receiving end as they were paid the least — only two shekels.
Therefore, every worker, under the Hammurabi Law Code was paid a guaranteed amount.
The code had laws for the temple Image Credit: In ancient Babylonia, under the rule of Hammurabi, the temple was given a very important and prime position.
But, with that position, came duties and responsibilities that the temple could not shy away from.
Most temples acted as granaries, and were obligated to render help to any citizen in hostage like circumstances.
The Hammurabi code was quite just towards poor citizens as well.
Poor farmers could come to the temple to borrow seed corn and other grains.
These people had to be given not merely supplies but also interest free advances.
Even the king could not borrow and forget.
He too had to pay back like others.
Social and gender biased laws Image Credit: Under the Hammurabi Law codes, citizens were governed as per their class and hierarchy in the society.
This was mainly due to the fact that the ancient Mesopotamian society was a mix of natives, tribes, slaves, and foreigners coming from other regions who amalgamated into one society, thereby, forcing the state to create laws for each segment.
The times were trying in ancient Mesopotamia and as such, each class had to abide by respective set of laws.
One such law pertained to thefts of cattle and sheep.
According to it, if the cattle, sheep or goat belonging to a god had been stolen, then, the thief had to pay thirty times the cost of the animal.
However, if the aggrieved party was a freed man, then, he would have to pay him only 10 times the cost.
Apart from these types of laws, there were laws that were gender biased.
In most code of hammurabi king of babylon, free men went without facing any trial or punishment, whereas women that had committed the same crime faced the flak of the state.
Laws were so extreme for a woman that even in such cases where her guilt could not be proven, she would be asked to 888 money into a river for here honor of her husband.
Some of these codes were so severe and unjust that these would send shock-waves down your spine when you get to know about them.
The Law of Retribution is based on the doctrine of taking revenge and giving it back in the same way.
Under the code mentioned by Hammurabi, the aggrieved party had the right to retaliate.
Some of these laws were totally barbaric, such as, robbers when caught were given death.
The hands of a son were hewn off if he had struck his father.
For builders that had constructed houses that fell off and killed their owners residing in them, death was the ultimate punishment.
Some laws were totally bizarre.
C with his death, Babylon switched several hands.
But, the one thing that remained unbreakable was the code.
After the empire was destroyed completely in 1595 B.
C, Babylon came under the rule of ancient people of Anatolia known as Hittites.
Though, the army ransacked the whole city, it, however, never stopped from referring the code in times of turmoil.
The code remained in use for another couple of centuries.
Though, the dictum was a prominent feature of the ancient world, yet, it got lost over centuries of turmoil and switching of dynasties.
It was only in 1901 that archaeologists discovered the diorite stele in Susa.
Susa was the capital of Elamite Empire, and ruled over by Shutruk-Nahhunte.
As per claims of historians, the king Shutruk raided Sippar, a city of ancient Code of hammurabi king of babylon and carried this stele back to Susa.
The prologue begins with divine claims by Hammurabi Image Credit: Since, Hammurabi ruled over an empire that was divided into myriad classes and strata, he devised a code to govern one and all in the most comprehensive manner.
In doing so, he began a prologue which had divine claims by him.
These claims were meant to motivate his citizens to follow the laws strictly and therefore, had divine elements in them.
With this, we come to the end of this post.
And, we are sure you must have gained a little more knowledge today about this humongous code of the ancient world we all know bonus 888 codes casino the Code of Hammurabi.
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Hammurabi (also known as Khammurabi and Ammurapi, reigned 1792-1750 BCE) was the sixth king of the Amorite First Dynasty of Babylon, assumed the throne from his father, Sin-Muballit, and expanded the kingdom to conquer all of ancient Mesopotamia.


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Code of Hammurabi: Ancient Babylonian Laws
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Code of Hammurabi : 13 Facts of Babylonian Law Code | Historyly
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A side view code of hammurabi king of babylon the "fingertip".
It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world.
The sixth Babylonian king,enacted the code.
A partial copy exists on a 2.
It consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "ana tooth for a tooth" lex talionis as graded based on depending on social status and gender, of slave versus free, man versus woman.
Nearly half of the code deals with matters of contract, establishing the wages to be paid to an ox driver or a surgeon for example.
Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, the liability of a builder for a house that collapses, or property that is damaged while left in the care of another.
A third of the code addresses issues concerning household and family relationships such as inheritance, divorce, paternity, and.
Only one provision appears to impose obligations on an official; this provision establishes that a judge who alters his decision after it is written down is to be fined and removed from the bench permanently.
A few provisions address issues related to military service.
This nearly complete example of the code is carved into a basalt stele in the shape of a huge2.
The code is inscribed in theusing carved into the stele.
Two versions of the Code at the.
In the preface to the law, he states, " and called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I should rule over the black-headed people likeand enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind.
Some of these laws follow along the rules of "an eye for an eye".
It had been taken as plunder by the king in the 12th century BC and was taken to in located in the present-day of Iran click here it was no longer available to the Babylonian people.
However, when brought both Babylon and Susa under the rule of hisand placed copies of the document in thethe text became available for all the peoples of the vast Persian Empire to view.
In 1901, Egyptologista member of an expedition headed byfound the stele containing the Code of hammurabi king of babylon of Hammurabi during archaeological excavations at the ancient site of Susa in Khuzestan.
The code of laws facebook game auto collect arranged in orderly groups, so that all who read the laws would know what was required of them.
Earlier collections of laws include theking of c.
These codes come from similar cultures in a relatively small geographical area, and they have passages which resemble each other.
Figures at the top of the stele "fingernail", above Hammurabi's code of laws.
The Code of Hammurabi is the longest surviving text from the Old Babylonian period.
The code has been seen as an early example of a fundamental law, regulating a government — i.
The code is also one of the earliest examples of the idea ofand it also poker reload bonus that both the accused and accuser have the opportunity to provide.
The occasional nature of many provisions suggests that the code may be better understood as a codification of Hammurabi's supplementary judicial decisions, and that, by memorializing his wisdom and justice, its purpose may have been the self-glorification of Hammurabi rather than a modern legal code or constitution.
However, its copying in subsequent generations indicates that it was used as a model of legal and judicial reasoning.
While the Code of Hammurabi was trying to achieve equality, biases still existed against those categorized in the lower end of the social spectrum and some of the punishments and justice could be gruesome.
The magnitude of criminal penalties often was based on the identity and gender of both the person committing the crime and the victim.
The Code issues justice following the three classes of Babylonian society: property owners, freed men, and slaves.
Punishments for someone assaulting someone from a lower class were far lighter than if they had assaulted someone of equal or higher status.
For example, if a doctor killed a rich patient, he would have his hands cut off, but if he killed a slave, click here financial restitution was required.
Women could also receive punishments that their male counterparts would not, as men were permitted to have affairs with their servants and slaves, whereas married women would be harshly punished for committing adultery.
Various copies of 888 poker promotion code canada of the Code of Hammurabi have been found on baked clay tablets, some possibly older than the celebrated basalt stele now in the Louvre.
The Prologue of the Code of Hammurabi the first 305 inscribed squares on the stele is on such a tablet, also at the Louvre Inv AO 10237.
Some gaps code of hammurabi king of babylon the list of benefits bestowed on cities recently annexed by Hammurabi may imply that it is older than the famous stele currently dated to the early 18th century BC.
Likewise, thepart of thealso has a "Code of Hammurabi" clay tablet, dated to 1790 BC, in Room 5, Inv Ni 2358.
In July 2010, archaeologists reported that a fragmentary Akkadian cuneiform tablet was discovered at, containing a c.
The Hazor law code fragments are currently being prepared for publication by a team from the.
Law 127: "If any one 'point the finger' at a sister of a god or the wife of any one, and can not prove it, this man shall be taken before the judges and his brow shall be marked by cutting the skin, or perhaps hair.
Law 265: "If a herdsman, to whose care cattle or sheep have been entrusted, be guilty of fraud and make false returns of the natural increase, or sell them for money, then shall he be convicted and pay the owner ten times the loss.
Law 15: "If any one take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates, he shall be put to death.
Law 42: "If any one take over a field to till it, and obtain no harvest therefrom, it must be proved that he did no work on the field, and he must deliver grain, just as his neighbor raised, to the owner of the field.
Law 22: "If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death.
Law 104: "If a merchant give an agent code of hammurabi king of babylon, wool, oil, or any other goods to transport, the agent shall give a receipt for the amount, and compensate the merchant therefore, he shall obtain a receipt from the merchant for the money that he gives the merchant.
Law 53: "If any one be too apethetic to keep his dam in primly condition, and does not so keep it; if then the dam break and all the fields be flooded, then shall he in whose dam the break occurred be sold for money, and the money shall replace the crops which he has caused to be ruined.
Law 142: "If a woman quarrel with her husband, and say: "You are not congenial to me," the reasons for her prejudice must be presented.
If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father's house.
Law 196: "If a man destroy the eye of another man, they shall destroy his eye.
If one break a man's bone, they shall break his bone.
If one destroy the eye of a freeman or break the bone of a freeman he shall pay one gold.
If one destroy the eye of a man's slave or break a bone of a man's slave he shall pay one-half his price.
If a son strikes his father, his hands shall be hewn off.
Law 129: "If the wife of a man has been caught lying with another man, they shall bind them and throw them into the waters.
If the owner of the wife would save his wife then in turn the king could save his servant.
Law 3: "If a man has borne false witness in a trial, or has not established the statement that he has made, if that case be a capital trial, that man shall be put to death.
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The University of Chicago Press.
The laws were based with scaled punishments, adjusting "" depending on social status and gender.
Archived from on 9 September 2007.
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Retrieved 14 September 2007.
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University of Michigan Library, 2009, originally published in 1916 by American Sunday-School Union p.
Barton, a scientist of Semitic languages at the University of Pennsylvania from 1922 to 1931, stated that while there are similarities between the Mosaic Law and the Code of Hammurabi, a study of the entirety of both laws "convinces the student that the laws of the Old Testament are in no essential way dependent upon the Babylonian laws.
William David Thomas, Gareth Stevens 2008 p.
Le Code de Hammourabi et la constitution originaire de la propriete dans l'ancienne Chaldee.
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