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Bushido refers not only to martial rectitude, but to personal rectitude: Rectitude or Justice, is the strongest virtue of Bushido. A well-known samurai defines it this way: ‘Rectitude is one’s power to decide upon a course of conduct in accordance with reason, without wavering; to die when to die is right, to strike when to strike is right.’


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The meaning of Bushido is basically ‘the way of the warrior’ which was used to define the Samurai way, their code. The Samurai were an evil fighting force when they first started but the Bushido very quickly created a fighting force that followed a very clear code of ethics.


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Fifth century Japan saw conflicts with Korea and China, but Japan had a very untrained army, with a clumsy Calvary, and poor infantry men Blumberg 1.
The reason was that horses were seen as a burden and were never bred to be samurai and the bushido code, fast, and large for war purposes Blumberg 2.
In the 6th and 9th centuries, a series of rebellions in Japan began from the Emishi people of the northern home islands; these country people were very well-trained in mounted archery.
The nimble Emishi would defeat the Japanese riders with ease Blumberg 2.
But during the war against the Emishi, Japan learned to aries and money horses for fighting, adapted new fighting methods, and developed When the samurai were about to engage in battle, most of them would state their rank, family name, and accomplishments.
If the samurai was a high-ranked officer, the winner of the duel would have to send the head of the defeated to the capital city where the city officials and the people could see it Clark 4.
However, if the samurai was not killed by his opponent, he had to commit seppuku.
Seppuku, also known as harakiri, is when a samurai must commit suicide by stabbing a knife into his abdomen and disemboweling himself.
A kinsmen or friend would then cut off their heads.
Seppuku was seen as more honorable than getting captured in battle or being forgiven from dishonor by an upper rank Clark 5.
It was also seen as more honorable to commit seppuku than dishonor the Bushido Code.
Bushido comes from medieval Japan, but until the 1600's it was something that had to be taught by a master.
It was later written down for everyone to see free top slots games download pc understand Hurst 16.
Bushido comes from all kinds of traits.
It comes from Buddhism, Zen Buddhism, Confucianism, and Shintoism.
All these schools of thought and religion has formed the code of the warrior that the samurai follow in their everyday life Clark 2.
Buddhism teaches the samurai that you need to detach yourself from worldly feelings, wants, and needs.
This was so that the samurai would not fear danger or death Clark 3.
Zen mediation teaches the samurai how to focus to rid themselves of unsteadiness and of all 1599 Words 7 Pages Bushido — strict code of samurai, one that honors Japanese traditions in relation to honor and loyalty Dictionary.
Shogun — Military commander in Japanese history Dictionary.
Prologue — the back ground 2626 Words 11 Pages So a Samurai, Knight and Spartan walk into a bar… Warriors of the Japan, masters in the way of the sword and honor bound to follow their lords command to the article source />These are some ideas that come to mind when thinking of the samurai.
These skills range from having wisdom, to having courage for every task that must be done.
The reason that these virtues are important is because they exemplify the samurai of old, who were decreasing in number.
Each virtue Yamamoto describes is important to a samurai, since it would form the keystone of his values.
As such, Yamamoto starts out with why 1852 Words 8 Pages The Lie of Bushido in The Hidden Blade Two samurai face each other, both bound by a code of honor to fight to the death.
This code is Bushido the ancient honor system of the samurai.
It emphasized eight important virtues that all samurai must live by.
These virtues include Rectitude, courage, benevolence, politeness, honesty, honor, loyalty, and character.
Any failure to follow these virtues resulted in the need to commit seppuku or Hara-kiri, which was honorable 2868 Words 12 Pages History of Samurai The Japanese warrior, known as the samurai, has played a significant role in Japan's history and culture throughout the centuries.
Their ancestors can be traced back to as far as can be remembered.
Some stories have become mysterious legends handed down over the centuries.
In this report you will learn who the samurai were, their origins as we know them, how samurai and the bushido code lived and fought and their evolution to today.
It will be clear why the samurai stand out as one of the most famous 2902 Words 12 Pages The Japanese warrior, known as the samurai, has played a significant role in Japan's history and culture throughout the centuries.
Their ancestors can be traced back to as far as can be remembered.
Some stories have become mysterious legends handed down over the centuries.
In this report you will learn who the samurai were, their origins as we know them, how they lived and fought and their evolution to today.
As a class of warriors and knights, they led society in feudal Japan.
The loyalty to his lord was much more important than his allegiance to his friends, family and even the emperor.
Their philosophy was one liberated him from fear, and for these reasons, the samurai came to be the dominate force throughout medieval Japan.
War played 659 Words 3 Pages conquer.
The lords of Japan used these well-trained fighters to defend their lands against enemies.
Because of the good strategic fighting skills, since the samurai was a kid, he was already a fine free top slots games download pc />They were miraculously strong warriors, their skills with the sword fighting were amazing.
While this, landowners, also known as Daimio, hired samurai warriors both to protect themselves and to attack other daimyo.
Both lords and daimyo had many peasants working for them.
Farming was the main economic 821 Words 4 Pages Bushido Shoshinshu Code of the Samurai Seppuku Harakiri : The Samurai Bushido, was the code of honor which these warriors lived and died by.
Under the code of Bushido, Seppuku Harakiri was the manner by which a Samurai voluntarily committed a ritualistic suicide.

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Strange as it sounds, Bushido, an unwritten set of moral norms had been ingrained in the spirit of the samurai for a long time. Perceived as a rigorous code of conduct at the time, it has been evolving from the lifestyle of the samurai for a course of several hundred years.


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Bushido was a code of ethics that guided the samurai, a class of elite warriors who also became political advisors in the Tokugawa, or Edo, era of medieval Japan, roughly lasting from 1600 to the.


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Bushido - The Cruel Code of the Samurai

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Bushido definition, (in feudal Japan) the code of the samurai, stressing unquestioning loyalty and obedience and valuing honor above life. See more.


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A class so bent on preserving honor, they'd rather slit their own bellies in ritualistic suicide than live a shamed existence.
In The Last Samurai, bushido melds with Nathan Algren's soul, curing the troubled American of alcoholism, war trauma, and self-loathing.
A reinvigorated, purified Algren turns his back on his employers to join rebel samurai bent on defending bushido, their dignified honor-code of loyalty, benevolence, etiquette, and self-control.
At least, that's what popular culture would have us believe.
In reality the term bushido went unrecognized until the early twentieth century, long after Nathan Algren's fictitious character joined the factual Satsuma Rebellion and years after the ousting of the samurai class.
In all likelihood samurai never even uttered the word.
It may come as an even greater surprise that bushido once received more recognition abroad than in Japan.
In 1900 writer Inazo Nitobe's published Bushido: The Soul of Japan in English, for the Western audience.
Nitobe subverted fact for an idealized imagining of Japan's culture and past, infusing Japan's samurai class with Christian values in hopes of shaping Western interpretations of his country.
Though initially rejected in Japan, Nitobe's ideology would be embraced by a government driven war machine.
Thanks to its empowering vision of the past, the extreme nationalist movement embraced bushido, exploiting The Soul of Japan to pave Japan's way to fascism in the buildup to World War II.
And so too The Last Samurai exploits Inazo Nitobe's depiction of bushido, renewing movie-going audiences' admiration for a venerable concept and glorified past that never truly existed.
But as bushido's precarious history proves, the truth often takes a back seat to more fashionable depictions, whether it be to change Western perceptions, fuel a fascist war agenda, or sell movie tickets.
Inazo Nitobe Source: Born in 1862 in Iwate Prefecture, Inazo Nitobe was just a baby when the final remnants of Japan's ruling samurai class came to an end.
Despite being of the samurai class themselves, Nitobe's family remained far removed from the battlefields and warrior culture of old Japan, gaining recognition as pioneers of irrigation and farming techniques.
At age nine Nitobe moved to Tokyo to live with his uncle where he began intensive English study.
A unique subject of study at the time, Nitobe would become fluent in the language.
In Death, Honor, and Loyalty: The Bushido Ideal, Cameron Hurst writes, "The Christian son of a late Tokugawa samurai… who was educated largely in English at special schools early in the Meiji era, Nitobe… could communicate with foreigners to a degree that even the most ardent exponents of kokusaika internationalization today would envy" 511.
In 1877 Nitobe made his way to Hokkaido where he enrolled in Sapporo Agricultural College.
Created under the influence of William S.
Clark, a devout Calvinist from New England, the school served to further solidify Nitobe's commitment to the Christian faith and he joined Clark's own "Sapporo Band" of Christians Oshiro.
In Sapporo, Nitobe's estrangement from the Japanese society, culture and people grew.
Japan's northernmost island remained largely unsettled wilderness and shared few cultural connections with mainland Japan.
Following his graduation from Sapporo Agricultural College, Nitobe began graduate school in Tokyo.
Unsatisfied with his studies, in 1884 Nitobe moved to the United States and enrolled in John Hopkins University.
After graduating, the globetrotting Nitobe would bounce around Germany, the United States and Sapporo and even become the under-secretary general of the League of Nations Samuel Snipes.
Unique to his era, Nitobe's knowledge of English and Western literature remains impressive even by today's standards.
Oleg Benesch, author of the in-depth study Bushido: The Creation of a Martial Ethic In Late Meiji Japan writes that Nitobe grew to be "more comfortable in English than Japanese" and eventually "lamented his lack of education in Japanese history and religion" 159.
It was during his time in California that Nitobe penned Bushido: The Soul of Japan.
The contrived imagining of the samurai class reshaped Western perceptions of Japan and would eventually come to redefine Japan's own interpretation of bushido and the samurai class.
Playing Catch-Up: The Meji Restoration Source: While Nitobe immersed himself in Western religion and culture, the Japanese government continued its own international pursuit — modernization.
Professor Kenichi Ohno of GRIPS explains, "The top national priority was to catch up with the West in every aspect of civilization, i.
Years of isolationism meant Japan had fallen behind the world powers in terms of technology and military power.
When Commodore Matthew Perry flexed his black ships' military muscle in the early 1850s, Japan had no alternative but to accept his terms.
In professor Aegean miles and bonus silver card words, resulting exposure to foreign technology and culture "shattered their Japan's pride," making Japanese view their own nation as backward and out of step with the world 43.
Japan's Meiji government looked to the West not to Westernize per se, but to become a powerful nation on the world stage.
While Nitobe doted over Western culture, the Meiji government devised a three samurai and the bushido code plan for modernization that focused on "industrialization economic modernizationintroducing a national constitution and parliament political modernizationand external expansion military modernization " Ohno 18.
Source: Political modernization would bring an end to Japan's feudal system and therefore its ruling samurai class.
New policies stripped the samurai of privileges and blurred class separation.
Voyages in World History explains: The Meji reforms replaced the feudal domains of daimyo with regional prefectures under control of the central government.
Tax collection was centralized to solidify the government's economic control… All the old distinctions between samurai and commoners were erased: 'The samurai abandoned their swords… and non-samurai were allowed to have surnames and ride horses.
Many former samurai had to face the indignity of looking for work.
And Japan's efforts saw quick results.
Kenichi Ohno writes, "In the military arena, Japan won a war against China in 1894-95 and began to invade Korea it was later colonized in 1910.
Japan also fought a victorious war with the Russian Empire in 1904-05.
Victory over Russia, a "Western nation," proved Japan had become global power.
The world took notice.
Class mobility and economic freedoms ushered in by ending the samurai led feudal system spurred Japan's furious growth.
The Meiji government's plans had begun to bear fruit.
Nitobe's Ulterior Motives Source: While the Meiji government plotted to strengthen Japan's presence on the world stage, Nitobe sought to change Westerners' perceptions of Japan from within.
At the time, Westerners knew little about the formerly isolated nation.
Rumors about Japan — a feudalistic society whose armies relied on swords and bows and arrows — painted the picture of an unsophisticated, archaic island nation.
In From Chivalry to Terrorism Leo Braudy writes, "Before World War I, many in Europe viewed Japan as a warrior society unadulterated by either commerce or the control of civilian politicians, with it's aristocratic military class still intact" 467.
Nitobe put faith in the power of his pen and began to write.
By simplifying the most eloquent, ideal aspects of Japanese culture into terms the West could relate to, he hoped to paint a new, noble image of Japan.
Writing in English only served to make Nitobe's contrivance more deliberate.
Maria Navarro and Alison Beeby explain, The original text of Nitobe's book was written in English, which was not Nitobe's mother tongue… Writing in a foreign language obliges samurai and the bushido code to "filter" one's own emotions and modes of expression… It allows the writer to express more empathy for the 'other culture' in Nitobe's case Western culture.
Furthermore, one is much more conscious of what one wants to say, or what one wishes to avoid saying, in order to make the work more acceptable for intended readers.
In 1899 Nitobe, "the self-described bridge between Japan and the West" published what would later become his most famous work, a romanticized, Westernized summation of the ideals of Japan's governing class, Bushido: The Soul of Japan Braudy 467.
Christianity and the Taming of the Samurai Source: Bushido: The Soul of Japan represents a synthesis of Japanese culture with Western ideology.
Nitobe tames Japan's samurai class by fusing it with European chivalry and Christian morality.
Although it saw release years after the extinction of the samurai, Bushido: The Soul of Japan presents an original idealization and idolization of the samurai class.
Yet Nitobe shapes the concept of bushido around principles of Western culture, not the other way around as might be expected.
Bushido: The Soul of Japan offers a suspicious lack of references to Japanese source material and historical fact.
Instead, the student of English literature relies on Western works and personalities to explain the bushido's principals.
Nitobe quotes the likes of Mencius, Frederick the Great, Burke, Konstantin Pobedonostsev, Shakespeare, James Hamilton and Bismarck — sources that have no connection to Read more history or culture.
In his self-proclaimed formulation of The Soul of Japan, the devout Christian references the Western Bible more than any other sources.
Somehow Nitobe sees Bible quotes as appropriate and satisfactory support for bushido.
Politeness, he quotes Corinthians 313, "suffereth long, and is kind; envieth not, vaunteth not itself" 50.
Bushido's benevolence, Nitobe explains, is "embodied by the Christian Red Cross movement, the medical treatment of a fallen foe 46.
Nitobe himself admits, "Some of those sayings reminds us of Christian expostulations, and show us how far in practical morality natural religion can approach the revealed" 78.
Nitobe even goes as far as to paint the samurai as Japan's heavenly sent forefathers, holy mechanisms that shaped Japan.
They were not only the flower of the nation, but its root as well.
All the gracious gifts of Heaven flowed through them" Nitobe 92.
Giving Soul to Suicide and the Sword Source: In his taming of the samurai, Nitobe even justifies their most savage attributes — seppuku also known as harakiri or ritual suicide and the sword — under the guise of Christian mores.
And it all starts with the soul.
Nitobe declares that in https://spin-casinos-deposit.website/and/c-the-money-and-soul-of-possibility-manga.html Western and Japanese custom, the soul is housed in the stomach.
This make take money free surveys and allows Nitobe to exalt suicide to a holy act, "The highest estimate placed upon honor was ample excuse with many for taking one's own life," before challenging Western readers to resist his interpretation, "I dare say that many good Christians, if only they are honest enough, will confess the fascination of, if not positive admiration for, the sublime composure with which Cato, Brutus, Petronius, and a host of other ancient worthies terminated their own earthly existence.
The sword receives similar treatment and Nitobe declares swordsmiths to be artists, not artisans; swords not weapons, but representations of their owners' souls.
He explains: The very possession of the dangerous instrument imparts to him the samurai a feeling and air of self-respect and responsibility.
What he carries in his belt is a symbol of what he carries in his mind and heart — loyalty and honor… In times of peace.
Nitobe's skilled manipulation dignifies and venerates even Japan's most "savage" customs.
The author's dedication to and knowledge of Christianity and Western culture allowed him to forge a propaganda tool under the guise of historic fact.
Nitobe hoped Bushido: The Soul of Japan would change Western opinions of Japan, raising the country's status in the world's eyes.
The Soul of Japan's Reception in The West Source: Bushido: The Soul of Japan became a hit with Western readers.
Nitobe's treatise so impressed Teddy Roosevelt that he "bought sixty copies to share with friends" Perez 280.
Although almost exclusively read by scholars, Nitobe's influence seeped into the Western conscious.
Braudy writes, "This view of Bushido was an attractive image for Westerners… Balden-Powell has included bushido as an ideal code of honor in his exhortation to the Boy Scouts.
Parliamentary groups… invoked the samurai as kindred spirit and writers on war preparedness haled up the samurai ethos of the Japanese army as a model to follow" 467.
Nitobe's account shocked readers by providing a glimpse into an unfamiliar, misunderstood world.
With nothing to offer a counter point, Western readers accepted Bushido: The Soul of Japan as a factual representation of Japanese culture, and it remained the West's quintessential work on the topic for decades.
The Soul of Japan's Reception in Japan Source: Bushido: The Soul of Japan received a different reaction in Japan.
Although bushido had yet to enter Japan's mainstream consciousness, scholars' interpretations of the concept varied and few agreed with Nitobe's representation.
In fact,"Nitobe stated that he resisted the Japanese translation of his book for years out of fear of what readers might think" Benesch 157.
Many of those readers attacked Nitobe's work for its agenda and inaccuracies.
Oleg Benesch explains that most Japanese scholars did not take Nitobe's work seriously: At the time of its initial publication, Nitobe's Bushido: The Soul Of Japan received a lukewarm reception from those Japanese who read the English edition.
Tsuda Sokichi wrote a scathing critique in 1901, rejecting Nitobe's central arguments.
According to Tsuda… the author knew very little about his subject.
Nitobe's equation of the term bushido with the soul of Japan was flawed, as bushido could only be applied to a single class… Tsuda further chastised Nitobe for not distinguishing between historical periods.
This purely Japanese form of bushido was seen as unique and superior to any foreign ideology.
Orthodox writer Tetsujiro Inoue went as far as declaring European chivalry as "nothing but woman-worship" and even derided Confucianism as an inferior Chinese import Benesch 179.
The orthodox school of thought dismissed Nitobe's"corrupted," Christianized version of bushido.
To complicate matters, at the time of Bushido: The Soul of Japan's release, few Japanese even recognized the term bushido.
In Musashi: The Dream of the Last Samurai Mamoru Oshii explains, "Bushido was not known among Japanese people… It appeared in literature, but was not a commonly used word.
The number of publications increases from a total of three in 1899 and 1900 to seven in 1901, six in 1902 and dozens per year from 1903 onward.
To make matters worse, Nitobe's book romanticized an old fashioned and exploitative class system everyone but the samurai hoped to leave behind.
Accounts of samurai abusing the lower classes run rampant.
Although rare, samurai could lawfully kill members of the lower class kirisutegomen for "surliness, discourtesy, and inappropriate conduct" Cunnigham.
With such inequities, it's no surprise the lower classes felt no love for Japan's elite.
Benesch writes, "The disdain most commoners had for the samurai has been described as legendary" 27.
Not far removed from the inequities and immobility of the former class structure, the common people had no interest in idolizing or celebrating their former ruling class.
However, Nitobe wrote for Western audiences and therefore never intended for Bushido: The Soul of Japan to be read by Japanese readers.
Nitobe wrote in English, referenced English sources and romanticized facts to satisfy his agenda and influence Western minds.
He did not expect people with critical knowledge on the subject to read his work.
Critique of Inazo Nitobe Source: Nitobe's "fear of what Japanese readers might think" proved sound when Bushido: The Soul of Japan received heavy criticism in Japan.
However, Nitobe soon found himself under attack as well.
Many Japanese scholars accused the author of being unqualified to write on bushido, questioning his expertise on Japanese history and culture.
Unlike the era's other bushido theorists, Nitobe inhabited the outskirts of his own country and culture.
He grew up studying English, sheltered from Japanese read more in Hokkaido.
Nitobe would go on to live abroad, marrying an American woman and dedicating himself to Christianity.
Although he eventually returned to Japan and took work as a professor, it was long after Bushido: The Soul of Japan had been written and published.
Critics claimed that Nitobe's alienation from Japanese culture meant he lacked the necessary historical and cultural knowledge to write on an inherently Japanese topic like bushido.
Nitobe's astounding lack of references to Japanese history and literature add weight to this argument.
Bushido: The Soul of Japan remains curiously void of factual backing, becoming a vehicle for Nitobe's equivocal ramble and yearning for an imaginary past.
The few Japanese references Nitobe made call his integrity into question.
For example, although Saigo Takamori did in fact lead the Satsuma Rebellion, the heroic motivations and suicide Nitobe references were embellished to lionize Saigo as the ideal samurai.
To be fair, many of Nitobe's critics also ignored factual history and cherry picked data for their own interpretations of bushido.
Many writers on bushido, even in the 20th century, tended to propose their own theories without references to, or regard for, the ideas of other commentators on the subject.
Instead, they gradually relied on carefully selected historical sources and narratives to support their theories.
Benesch 116 However, Nitobe's contemporaries' actions don't excuse his own.
At its core, Bushido: The Soul of Japan presents baseless conjecture while exposing its author's detachment from Japanese history and culture.
Nitobe forgoes fact while presenting a wonky rambling on a history he does not and can not support.
While proselytizing a universal morality to gain Japan favor in the West, Nitobe fails to prove bushido's actual existence.
Give Me That New Old-Time Bushido?
Source: Popular culture presents bushido as a concrete moral code so intertwined with Japan's hallowed samurai class that the two appear inseparable.
But in reality the term bushido did not exist until the twentieth century.
In fact, Nitobe, one of the first scholars to embrace bushido, thought he created the term in 1900.
Although these terms prove that warrior ideals had a place in the Japanese consciousness, equating them to bushido would be inaccurate.
The concept bushido came into use during the Meiji era but wouldn't gain widespread acknowledgment until Meiji's end.
Despite popular imagery, ancient samurai did not write about or discuss bushido.
Dishonorable acts didn't end careers and lives as romanticized histories lead us to believe.
That isn't to say that ancient Japan lacked laws or moral codes — claiming such would be ridiculous.
Rosalind Wiseman puts it best in her book Queen Bees and Wannabes, "We all know what an honor code is.
It's a set of behavioral standards including discipline, character, fairness, and loyalty for people to uphold and live up to" Wiseman 191.
From small communities like workplaces and clubs to large institutions like religions and nations, every culture has honor codes and concepts of morality.
But popular representations of bushido, samurai, and ancient Japan depict a clear and strictly enforced code of honor.
To dishonor oneself was to commit spiritual and physical suicide.
Popularized after the samurai class's demise, books like Bushido: The Soul of Japan and Yamamoto Tsunetomo's Hagakure help facilitate this myth, making it seem as if samurai lived and acted according to a literal, clearly defined set of rules that never existed.
and free money grants family kakun to an overarching moral code is a leap most researchers don't take.
Benesch comments, "Bushido receives little or no mention in postwar scholarship on medieval house codes… Evidence indicates that the association of bushido with kakun is a product of late Meiji-era interpretations" 8.
Passed down from generation to generation kakun varied greatly by family.
The scrolls became family heirlooms, not a set of rules to live by.
Early discourse on the subject exposes how vague warrior class values had been.
Besides, warriors focused on victory and survival — battle didn't lend itself to counterproductive codes of honor.
Any laws or moral codes put into place during the Edo era samurai and the bushido code served to tame Japan's wild, unprincipled warrior class as they moved from the battlefield to desk jobs.
With no battles to wage, the Tokugawa government relegated swords to ornaments of class, the ultimate status symbols.
Samurai became upper-class bureaucrats with leisure time to spend on philosophical pursuits.
Ideas of honor and etiquette frowned upon disloyalty and senseless violence, playing into the Tokugawa government's strategy to maintain control over a united Japan.
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Bushido had never existed as an honor code or term in ancient Japan as Bushido: The Soul of Japan implied.
Nitobe's representation of the samurai class proves itself just as contrived.
Like all human beings, samurai morals varied by individual.
Source: Historical accounts show that samurai did not follow an honor code, which would have been an impractical obstacle to survival, victory, and comfortable living.
Timon Screech writes "We are talking mythologies.
The belief that samurai ever fought to the death does not survive investigation, nor the claim that they made the sacrifice of disembowelment when atonement was required.
The motto the way of the samurai is death was invented long after death had ceased to be on most samurai's minds or a reality in their lives… they were bureaucrats.
Ignoring seppuku's factual history, writers romanticized the practice and exalted it to the ultimate form of honor.
Source: And what of the sword, the so-called soul of the samurai?
For the greater part of their history, the sword was not an important weapon to the samurai.
But what about archery, the samurai's original weapon of choice?
Though elegant, bows fired projectiles and killed from afar — just like firearms.
Shouldn't archery be viewed as just as dishonorable as guns?
Furthermore, samurai had the privilege and advantage of mounted combat.
Both the shooting and cutting down of foot-soldiers from a favorable mounted position clashes with the honorable image of the grounded sword fighter popularized by modern depictions of the samurai.
In Bushido: The Soul of Japan Nitobe describes loyalty as the shining attribute of the samurai class.
However, samurai sullied Japanese history with rampant examples of disloyalty.
Cameron Hurst III writes: In fact, one of the most troubling problems of the premodern era is the apparent discrepancy between… codes exhorting the samurai to practice loyalty and the all-too-common incidents of disloyalty which racked medieval Japanese warrior life.
It would not be an exaggeration to say that most crucial battles in medieval Japan were decided by the defection — that is, the disloyalty — of one or more of the major vassals of the losing general.
Benesch explains: Loyalty required payment.
Reciprocity was expected at every stage of the process… and most samurai would have considered their own lives to be considerably more important than the lives of their superiors… Furthermore repeated looting of Kyoto evidenced of a lack of ethics, and the great importance warriors placed on appearance represented the antithesis of the popular image of the austere and frugal samurai.
Source: Tokugawa ushered in an unprecedented era of peace that forever altered the live's of Japan's warrior class.
Many samurai moved from the battlefield to civil service positions.
As society's upper class, these samurai held cushy positions in the new era's bureaucracy.
Swords became symbols of status, not battle.
With ample leisure time, these samurai enjoyed hobbies such as tea ceremony and calligraphy.
Others spent time in the pleasure quarters.
While peasants toiled in the fields to feed the nation and pay taxes and merchants struggled to maintain a respectable position in society, the samurai worked desk jobs for rice stipends.
Disposable income afforded samurai the luxuries of materialism and the former warriors became Japan's most fashionable class.
In other words, samurai represented "the one percent" actually six to eight percent according to Don Cunningham of the Tokugawa era.
Source: But not all samurai enjoyed life in the upper class.
Low status samurai made small stipends that barely afforded daily living.
Bound by the Tokugawa era's strict laws that forbade outside unemployment, some of these samurai renounced their status to become artisans or farmers Cunningham.
Still other Tokugawa era samurai could not find employment.
These vagrants often turned to dishonorable acts.
As Don Cunningham explains in Taiho-jutsu: Law and Order in the Age of the Samurai, "Facing unemployment and an ill-defined role within their new society, many samurai resorted to criminal activities, disobedience, and defiance" Cunningham.
With few prospects and mounting frustrations, these samurai dressed and spoke flamboyantly, harassed lower classes, joined gangs, and brawled in the streets.
Whether elite civil servants or unemployed ruffians, Tokugawa era samurai did little to reinforce Nitobe's depictions of an honor-bound class that set a high moral standard for other classes to aspire to.
Source: The loss of status ushered in by the Meiji government did not please those samurai accustomed to the Tokugawa system.
Benesch states, "The samurai found their social status increasingly challenged bysome of whom were also purchasing or receiving samurai privileges such as the right to wear swords" 24.
Rendered useless in an age of peace even the sword, "the soul" and symbol of the samurai had lost meaning.
New class mobility allowed the uppity lower classes to challenge the samurai in both wealth and status.
As the Satsuma Rebellion of 1877 proves, the changes pushed some samurai to take action.
In truth, holdouts from a bygone era rebelled, attempting to preserve their status and cushy way of life that included rice stipends, property, and nepotism.
Professor Ohno points out: The previous samurai class, now deprived of their rice salary… were particularly unhappy with the new government which was established, ironically by young samurai… Silk and tea found huge markets, soaring prices enriched farmers.
Enriched farmers bought Western clothes.
The merchant class grew, particularly in Yokohama… Inflation soared and samurai and urban populations suffered.
A weakened class structure meant poor or unemployed samurai could seek fortune elsewhere.
The abolition of the heredity system allowed for mobility.
Suddenly those in high positions found incentive to work hard.
Although a minority, Saigo and other top ranking samurai had the most to lose and rebelled as a result.
Lucky for Nitobe, honor is in the eye of the beholder, a concept open to interpretation.
For example Nitobe cites The 47 Ronin Story as the ultimate example of loyalty, but others interpret it as a cowardly sneak attack.
Japan celebrates Miyamoto Musashi as its most skilled sword-fighter, yet he arrived late to duels and "dishonorably" sneak-attacked opponents.
Nitobe describes the Satsuma Rebellion as a battle of honor, not a rebellion driven by the preservation of class status.
Although Nitobe and his fellow writers lament the corruption and destruction of bushido by modernity, the concept never existed as they describe.
Samurai were not the loyal, honorable, bastions of bushido that they have come to represent.
Charles Sharam writes in The Samurai: Myth Versus Reality, "Samurai were a superfluous burden on Japanese civilization… that contributed little to society but drained a considerable amount of wealth.
That said, their elimination in the years of the Meiji Restoration was most definitely warranted for the betterment of the nation.
Despite military victories abroad, Japanese officials felt troops lacked confidence and fighting spirit.
Bushido's image of honorable samurai fighting to the death provided the solution Oshii.
The ideology that changed the West's perception of Japan would now serve to fuel fascism and the Japanese war machine.
According to Nitobe, Japan came from a long line of honorable, brave, and capable warriors that could be extended to all classes.
He wrote, "In manifold ways has bushido filtered down from the social class where it originated, and samurai and the bushido code as leaven among the masses, furnishing a moral standard for the whole people" Nitobe.
Trickle down bushido meant even the lowliest citizen could aspire to and attain the glory and honor of a samurai.
The warrior spirit was ingrained in the Japanese soul.
By taking bushido mainstream, the Japanese government looked to boost its soldiers' and citizens' confidence by applying the ideology among its military and citizenry.
Source: Furthermore, bushido justified Japan's imperialistic cause by demonstrating Japan's moral and cultural superiority to other nations.
Bushido writer Suzuki Chikara "felt that both Western and Chinese thought were alien to Japan, and that the nation would have to focus on its own 'true spirit' and promote 'national spirit-ism'" Benesch 101.
Like America's Manifest Destiny and the religious zealotry that fueled the crusades, romanticized bushido served to motivate and rationalize Japan's imperialist agenda.
Now that it had found an ideology, the Japanese government had to make bushido "leaven among the masses" or moving propaganda.
The nationalized education system streamlined curriculums to spread government rhetoric and foster an enlightened, battle-ready citizenry.
The national curriculum changed history to fit government agendas.
Mandatory texts romanticized past events and personalities.
According to Oshii, "False images were created out of government necessity.
Source: Nitobe's Bushido: The Soul of Japan gained popularity in prewar Japan thanks to its ideology and romanticism of the past.
Nitobe declares, "Yamato Damashii, the soul of Japan, ultimately came to express the Volksgeist of the Island Realm" 27.
Defined as the spirit of the people, Hitler embraced Volksgeist for his own fascist agenda Griffen 255.
Like bushido, Volksgeist celebrated its country's folk history, cultural heritage and race.
These unrealistic nostalgias for the past sowed the seeds of fascism that would lead to the unspeakable violence and tragedies surrounding World War II.
Bushido would find its ultimate embodiment in kamikaze pilots and foot-soldiers who "honorably" sacrificed themselves for their country.
In an eerie prediction of what was to come, Bushido: The Soul of Japan states, Discipline in self-control can easily go too far.
It can well repress the genial current of the soul.
It can force pliant natures into distortions and monstrosities.
It can beget bigotry, breed hypocrisy, or habituate affections.
Thanks to Nitobe, Japan's ancient soldiers and bureaucrats became honorable, spiritual warriors.
More concerned with loyalty, benevolence, etiquette, and self-control than victory, monetary gains or rank in society, the samurai became a paradigm for readers to aspire to.
But history is ever-changing.
True events fade from memory and years of interpretation's tincture, both intended and unintended, shape modern understandings of the past.
Blurred mixtures of fact, opinion and fantasy enter mainstream consciousness and gain acceptance as "true" history.
Did Saigo Takamori really commit seppuku at the Satsuma Rebellion's end?
Did Davy Crockett really fight to his death at the Alamo, or was he executed free top slots games download pc surrender as some historians believe?
Was the Satsuma Rebellion a battle for virtue or for status?
Was the Boston Tea Party a rebellion against unfair taxation or wealthy American merchants fighting to maintain their monopoly over tea?
And what about George Washington cutting down his father's cherry tree?
And his wooden teeth?
While the truth may never be known or agreed upon, it's important to question the events and the motivations behind our so-called histories.
In Japan's case, government manipulated histories, including a glorified samurai class and bushido code, became propaganda that helped inspire a fanatical war machine.
Society often looks for answers to our present problems in the past.
Like the current Tea Party movement's misinformed exploitation of America's past, Nitobe's bushido created a yearning for the unsubstantiated simplicity and purity of a bygone era.
As The Last Samurai proves, Nitobe's legacy lives on.
Accurate or not, his simplified idealization of bushido and the samurai still garners the world's admiration.
And as long as it does, popular culture will follow in the footsteps of both Inazo Nitobe and the Japanese government, exploiting their mythical image for its own motives — consumer's hard earned cash.

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武士道 is the title for, "The Code of the Samurai." Sometimes called "The Seven Virtues of the Samurai," "The Bushido Code," or "The Samurai Code of Chivalry." This would be read in Chinese characters, Japanese Kanji, and old Korean Hanja as "The Way of the Warrior," "The Warrior's Way," or "The Warrior's Code."


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Bushido was an unwritten moral code of conduct for the samurai, and today it still strongly influences Japanese thought and society. The precise content of the Bushido code varied historically as the samurai class came under the influence of Zen Buddhist and Confucian thought, but its unchanging ideals of honour and virtue are alive and well within martial arts, athletics and Japan’s defence.


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The Bushido held restrictions on the Samurai, prohibiting them to do many things and to live a very honest life.
This is not only good for Samurai, but for see more as it will make each who follows a truer person.
To do the right thing by samurai and the bushido code />A Samurai must be smart in making choices and always chose what is good for the clan.
He will make the right choice even if left alone.
Practice Gi in everything you do.
Politeness is different in Japan, politeness is more than just being kind, its about caring about others, and some say it borders an almost love-like feeling.
Be true by the actions you show, and by the words you speak.
Follow the laws of the universe and you will become a honest person.
A Samurai must earn honor and enjoy it if he is to satisfying the codes of the Bushido.
The Bushido code is a unique set of codes that allowed the Samurai to be the utmost professional warriors till this day.
Now, not only is it popular in Japan, it is popular all over the world, a book on the Bushido called Bushido, Free top slots games download pc Soul of Japan written by Inazo Nitobe was read by Theodore Roosevelt and John F.

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The Bushido code of conduct, closely tied to Samurai culture, played an important role in the expansion of Asian art, Japanese values, and many important traditions like tea ceremonies and the art of samurai sword-making.


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The Samurai code of conduct, known as the Bushido Code, is a series of guidelines that emphasizes compassion, benevolence and other non-martial virtues. The eight virtues are: rectitude or justice, courage, benevolence or mercy, politeness, honesty and sincerity, honor, loyalty, character and self-control.


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In the mid-19th century, however, the precepts of Bushidō were made the basis of training for the whole society, with link emperor replacing free top slots games download pc feudaloras the focus of loyalty and sacrifice.
As such it contributed to the rise of Japanese following the 1868 and to the strengthening of civilian morale during the 1937—45 and.
Elements of the code remain, however, in the practice of Japanese martial arts and in the sport of wrestling.
The name Bushidō was not used until the 16th century, but the idea of the code developed during the 1192—1333as did the practice of ritual disembowelment.
The precise content click the Bushidō code varied historically as the samurai class came under the influence of Buddhist and thought, but its one unchanging ideal was martial spirit, including athletic and military skills as well as fearlessness toward the enemy in battle.
However, the supreme obligation of the samurai was to his lord, even if this might cause suffering to his parents.
During the 1603—1867 Bushidō thought was infused with Confucian and made into a system that stressed obligation or duty.
Obedience to authority was stressed, but duty came first even if it entailed violation of statute law.
The extent to which duty superseded all else is perhaps best exemplified in the story of the from the early 18th century.
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Bushido: The Soul of Japan became a hit with Western readers. "The slim volume," Tim Clark writes in The Bushido Code: The Eight Virtues of the Samurai, "went on to become an international bestseller," influencing some of the era's most influential men. Nitobe's treatise so impressed Teddy Roosevelt that he "bought sixty copies to share with.


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THE BUSHIDO CODE. 1.. As a warrior, the Samurai have the power to kill. However, benevolence is about making sure that you are balanced in how you think. It is.


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Bushido was the code of conduct followed by Japan's samurai warriors and their precursors in feudal Japan, as well as much of central and east Asia. The principles of bushido emphasized honor, courage, frugality, skill in the martial arts, and loyalty to a warrior's master (daimyo) above all else.


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Bushido, a documentary

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The samurai were not mercenary warriors, roaming Japan and fighting for whatever warlord would pay them. They were bound to a specific lord, or daimyo, and also bound to their communities by duty and honor. Although Bushido is referred to as a code, it was not a formal set of rules that all samurai.


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Bushidō, (Japanese: “Way of the Warrior”) the code of conduct of the samurai, or bushi (warrior), class of premodern Japan.In the mid-19th century, however, the precepts of Bushidō were made the basis of ethical training for the whole society, with the emperor replacing the feudal lord, or daimyo, as the focus of loyalty and sacrifice.


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Top 10 HORRIFYING Facts You Didn’t Know About SAMURAI

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The meaning of Bushido is basically ‘the way of the warrior’ which was used to define the Samurai way, their code. The Samurai were an evil fighting force when they first started but the Bushido very quickly created a fighting force that followed a very clear code of ethics.


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Bushido definition, (in feudal Japan) the code of the samurai, stressing unquestioning loyalty and obedience and valuing honor above life. See more.


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The unwritten Samurai code of conduct, known as Bushido, held that the true warrior must hold that loyalty, courage, veracity, compassion, and honor as important, above all else. An appreciation and respect of life was also imperative, as it added balance to the warrior character of the Samurai.


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That we have the power to make a decision quickly.
It is about making sure that we do not become indecisive and that our decisions are made and based on the right reasons.
If we are raised in a particular way, we think in a way that we belief in.
However, benevolence is about making sure that you are balanced in how you think.
It is about making sure that you also have sympathy and mercy at the right time.
For the Samurai it was about making sure you fought for the right reason and that if you had to kill someone, you did it for the right reason and your belief but that you also make sure that if there was no need free top slots games download pc kill you would have mercy and be sympathetic.
The way they live their life meant they must be respectful of their elders, they must respect life, respect others beliefs.
Everything they did was honorable which meant they did everything in what they believed with honor.
They treated each other like family and would do everything within their power to protect and help their samurai warriors.
Loyalty was important because this means they can trust free top slots games download pc warriors and know they would be loyal to whatever they needed to do and not worry about loosing source respect.